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The  present  volume  in  the  Columbia  University  Oriental 
Series  is  a  companion  to  the  volumes  previously  printed  dealing 
with  two  other  of  the  principal  cities  of  the  eastern  Mediterranean 
littoral.  Tyre  has  had  a  long  and  eventful  history;  but  to  write 
that  history  is  not  always  an  easy  task.  The  data  have  to  be 
gathered  fropa  the  most  varied  sources  and  a  diligence  exhibited 
which  is  not  always  apparent  in  the  results  achieved.  Since  the 
small  study  of  J.  Krall,  Tyrus  und  Sidon  (Vien,  1888),  the  present 
is  the  first  attempt  made  to  write  the  history  of  the  place.  Dr. 
Wallace  B.  Fleming  has  acquitted  himself  well  of  the  task  he 
assigned  to  himself,  and  has  summed  up  carefully  and  with  as 
much  completeness  as  is  possible  the  various  phases  through 
which  the  life  of  the  city  has  passed. 

Richard  Gottheil. 

March  1,  1915. 




Teacher  and  Friend 
in  recognition 


The  Wise  and  Patient  Help 
To  Which  It  Owes  Much 

This  Volume 
Is  Gratefully  Dedicated 


The  Phoenicians  wrote  the  record  of  their  civiHzation  in 
achievements,  not  in  books.  This  great  people  contributed 
almost  nothing  to  the  literature  of  the  world,  though  they 
made  possible  all  the  literature  of  the  western  and  near  eastern 
nations.  "The  Phoenicians  were  masons,  carpenters,  ship- 
builders, weavers,  dyers,  glass-blowers,  workers  in  metal,  mer- 
chants, navigators,  discoverers:  if  they  were  not  actually  the 
first  to  invent  the  alphabet,^  at  least  they  so  improved  the  art 
of  writing  that  their  system  has  been  adopted  and  has  been  used 
by  almost  the  whole  civilized  world.  They  surpassed  all  other 
peoples  of  antiquity  in  enterprise,  perseverance  and  industry. 
They  succeeded  in  showing  that  as  much  glory  might  be  won 
and  as  enduring  a  power  might  be  built  up  by  arts  and  industries 
as  by  arms."^ 

Of  the  Phoenician  cities,  Tyre  was  the  most  important;  it  was 
so  important  that  the  Greeks  gave  its  name  to  the  whole  region, 
calling  it  ^vpCa,  from  IIU  Tsur,  Tyre,  and  the  Greek  name  is 
perpetuated  to  this  day  in  our  word  Syria? 

It  is  remarkable  that  the  Tyrians  should  have  occupied  so 
high  a  place  in  human  history  for  twenty-five  hundred  years 
and  yet  have  left  the  world  no  body  of  literature  and  no  written 

1  Herodotus  (V,  58)  says  that  the  Phoenicians  who  came  with  Cadmus 
(DTp)  of  Tyre  introduced  in  Greece  many  arts,  among  them  alphabetical 
writing,  and  that  the  letters  of  the  alphabet  are  justly  called  Phoenician. 
While  it  is  generally  admitted  that  the  Phoenicians  introduced  letters,  modern 
authorities  seek  to  trace  the  elements  and  suggestions  of  their  alphabet  to 
earlier  sources.  For  a  full  discussion  of  the  subject  see  Pliny,  Natural  History, 
VII,  57;  Rawlinson,  Herodotus,  Vol.  II,  p.  313;  Kxall,  Studien  zur  Geschichte 
des  Alten  Agypten,  III,  Tyrus  und  Sidon  (Vien,  1888),  pp.  15-21,  66. 

2  Rawlinson,  History  of  Phoenicia,  p.  39. 

'  Herodotus  (VII,  63)  speaks  of  Syria  as  an  abbreviation  of  Assyria,  but 
in  this  he  is  misled  by  the  similarity  of  the  words.  Vid.  Rawlinson,  Phoen., 
p.  40;  LeStrange,  Palestine  under  Moslems,  p.  14. 


records  of  their  own  achievements  and  life.^  In  constructing  the 
history  of  the  city  of  Tyre,  materials  must  be  gathered  from 
widely  separated  sources,  and  the  story  pieced  out  from  the 
references  in  the  writings  of  the  various  peoples  with  whom  they 
came  in  contact.  The  task  is  the  more  difficult  because  of  the 
fact  that  these  peoples  were  frequently  unfriendly. 

Allusions  to  Tyre  are  to  be  found  in  the  writings  of  the  Egyp- 
tians, the  Assyrians,  the  Babylonians,  the  Persians,  the  Hebrews, 
the  Greeks,  and  the  Romans  of  the  ancient  times,  and  in  a  few 
meager  fragments  of  their  own  writing.  In  the  medieval  period 
to  the  close  of  the  Crusades,  the  sources  of  information  are  the 
Latin,  the  Greek,  the  Arabic,  the  French  and  the  Hebrew.  The 
Crusaders  left  their  principal  records  in  Latin  and  French. 
From  the  close  of  the  Crusades  there  is  scarcely  any  story  to 
tell,  for  Tyre  lay  in  utter  ruins.  For  this  period  we  have  the 
notes  of  pilgrims  and  travelers.  The  present  petty  town  of 
Sur  has  arisen  since  the  Mutowalis  occupied  the  district  in 
1766  A.D.  Its  humble  story  presents  little  difficulty,  but  it  is 
connected  with  the  Tyre  of  history  in  location  and  name  only. 

On  the  pages  which  follow  will  be  found  references  to  the 
works  of  many  historians  who  have  written  of  the  Phoenicians, 
and  particularly  of  the  Tyrians;  a  few  authors,  however,  require 
special  mention.  Among  those  who  have  done  most  work  in 
this  field  should  be  mentioned  first  of  all  F.  C.  Movers,  whose 
work,  "Die  Phonizier"  (1842-1856)  is  an  exhaustive  review  of 
all  historical  sources  then  available.  John  Kenrick  published 
in  1855  his  "History  of  Phoenicia,"  less  voluminous  than  that 
of  Movers,  but  making  available  for  English  readers  all  of  the 
most  important  facts  of  Phoenician  history  then  known.  Ernst 
Renan's  "Mission  de  Phenicie"  (1864)  was  of  great  value  for 
its  information  as  to  topography  and  art.  George  Rawlinson's 
"Phoenicia,"  published  in  London  in  1889,  was  a  rewriting  of 
the  history  of  Phoenicia  in  the  light  of  archeological  discoveries 
to  that  date.     In  the  same  year,  in  Berlin,  Richard  Pietschmann 

1  Renan,  Mission  de  Ph6nicie  (IV,  1),  says:  "  Je  ne  pense  pas  qu'aucune 
grande  ville  ay  ant  jou^  pendant  des  siScles  un  role  de  premier  ordre  ait  laiss6 
mcins  de  traces  que  Tyr." 


published  his  "Geschichte  der  Phonizier,"  rendering  a  like 
service  for  the  German  readers. 

The  most  important  publications  concerning  Tyre  that  have 
appeared  are  E.  W.  Hengstenberg's  De  Rebus  Tyriorum  (Berlin, 
1832),  J.  Krall's  Tyrus  und  Sidon  (Vien,  1888),  F.  Jeremias's 
Tyrus  bis  zur  Zeit  Nebukadnezars  (Leipzig,  1891), — all  of  which 
treat  of  the  early  period  of  the  city's  history, — and  L.  Lucas's 
Geschichte  der  Stadt  Tyrus  zur  Zeit  der  Kreuzziige  (Marburg, 

Recent  discoveries  have  made  necessary  the  rewriting  of  whole 
chapters  of  Phoenician  history.  Important  researches  have 
been  carried  on  in  Phoenicia.  The  Tel-el-Amarna  letters  have 
brought  back  to  the  world  the  lost  record  of  an  entire  period  of 
early  Phoenician  life,  while  recent  excavations  in  Crete  have 
resulted  in  the  rediscovery  of  the  old  Minoan  kingdom  which 
now  rises  to  dispute  with  Phoenicia  the  ancient  sovereignty  of 
the  seas. 

The  history  of  Phoenicia  is  the  history  of  her  several  inde- 
pendent city-states.  The  Phoenicians  did  not  seek  political  but 
commercial  power.  They  cared  little  for  strong  political  unity. 
Then,  their  land  was  unfavorable  to  such  unity.  It  was  about 
two  hundred  miles  long  and  from  two  to  fifteen  miles  wide. 
Headlands  projecting  to  the  sea  cut  this  coastland  into  a  number 
of  small  plains  that  had  their  names  from  their  chief  cities,  as 
the  Plain  of  Tyre,  the  Plain  of  Sidon,  the  Plain  of  Acco,  etc. 
Thus  the  topography  of  the  land  was  unfavorable  to  a  strongly 
centralized  government.  There  was  no  recognized  central 
capital.  The  history  of  Tyre  is  the  history  of  the  chief  of  the 
Phoenician  city-states. 

I  am  conscious  of  a  certain  unevenness  in  the  work.  Parts 
of  it  are  broadly  disposed,  while  others  are  meager  in  detail, 
and  even  bald  in  statement.  The  major  cause  for  this  is  the 
curious  abundance  of  materials  in  the  sources  for  some  periods, 
and  their  paucity  in  others.  To  future  workers,  to  whom  larger 
materials  may  come,  must  be  left  the  pleasant  task  of  filling  out 
the  story. 


I  have  not  cumbered  the  pages  with  citations  of  secondary 
sources.  These  are  mentioned  only  when  I  have  felt  it  necessary 
to  locate  a  quotation  or  to  acknowledge  an  indebtedness.  The 
notes  are  intended  mainly  to  refer  to  the  original  sources,  and 
represent  not  secondary,  but  first  hand  use  of  them  all. 

Chapter  I 


Tyre  to  the  Age  of  Hiram 1-15 

Chapter  II 
Tyre  in  the  Age  of  Hiram 16-23 

Chapter  III 

From   the   Age   of   Hiram   to   the   Encroachment   of 
Assyria 24-26 

Chapter  IV 
Tyre's  Resistance  to  Assyrian  Encroachment 27-41 

Chapter  V 
Tyre's  Resistance  to  Babylon 42-47 

Chapter  VI 
Tyre  under  the  Persians 48-53 

Chapter  VII 
Tyre  under  the  Greeks 54-64 

Chapter  VIII 
Tyre  under  the  Seleucidae 65-69 

Chapter  IX 
Tyre  under  the  Romans  and  Moslems 70-85 

CfiAPTER    X 

The  Period  of  the  Crusades 86-122 



Chaptee  XI 
From  the  Crusades  to  the  Present  Day 123-132 

Chapter  XII 
Colonies,  Commerce  and  Industries 133-145 

Chapter  XIII 
ReHgion  of  the  Tyrians 146-154 

Chapter  XIV 

Coins  of  Tyre 155-161 

Index 162-165 




The  Origin  of  the  Phoenicians 

The  account  of  the  origin  of  the  Phoenician  nation  given  by 
Sanchoniathon^  impUes  that  the  people  were  autochthonous. 
The  genealogical  table  of  Genesis  X,  in  which  tribes  are  personi- 
fied and  an  effort  is  made  to  trace  their  relation,  makes  Canaan 
son  of  Ham  and  Sidon  son  of  Canaan,  and  the  statement  of  the 
borders  of  Canaan  shows  that  the  author  considered  the  Phoeni- 
cians native  to  Syria.  But  Sanchoniathon's  account  is  purely 
mythical,  and  so  is  without  weight,  and  the  suggestion  of  Genesis 
X  that  the  Canaanites  were  Hamitic  cannot  be  maintained. 
It  is  clear  from  the  language  of  the  Phoenicians  that  they  were 
Semites,  and  were  related  to  the  Assyrians,  the  Babylonians, 
the  Arabs,  and  especially  to  the  Hebrews.^  It  is  true  that  the 
Phoenician  language  is  not  identical  with  the  Hebrew;  it  has 
its  own  characteristics.  "The  definite  article,  so  common  in 
Hebrew,  is  rare  in  Phoenician.  The  quiescent  letters,  which  so 
frequently  accompany  long  vowels  in  Hebrew,  are  usually 
omitted  in  Phoenician.  Feminine  nouns  do  not  have  the  *  H ' 
termination."^  There  are  other  differences  between  the  two 
languages,  and  yet  "the  words  most  commonly  in  use,  the 
particles,  the  pronouns,  the  forms  of  the  verb,  the  principal 
inflections  in  Phoenician  are  identical,  or  nearly  identical,  with 
the  pure  Hebrew."^ 

1  Vid.  p.  7  below. 

2  Vid.  Noldeke,  Die  Semitischen  Sprachen  (Leipzig,  1899),  p.  8. 

'  Rawlinson,  Phoenicia,  p.  24.  Vid.  Noldeke,  Semitischen  Sprachen,  pp. 

*  Renan,  Histoire  des  Langues  S^mitiques,  pp.  189,  190.  Noldeke  (Semit- 
ischen Sprachen,  p.  19)  says,  "Hebraisch  und  Phonicisch  sind  bloss  Dialekte 
2  1 


Whence  then  came  the  Phoenicians?  Herodotus  says:  "These 
Phoenicians,  as  they  themselves  say,  anciently  dwelt  upon  the 
Erythrian  sea;  and  having  crossed  over  thence,  they  inhabited 
the  sea-coast  of  Syria. "^  This  tradition  was  held  by  the  Persians. 
"The  learned  among  the  Persians  allege  that  the  Phoenicians 
.  .  .  coming  from  the  sea  called  Erythria  to  this  sea  (Mediter- 
ranean) and  having  settled  in  the  country  which  they  now 
occupy,  immediately  undertook  distant  voyages;  and  carrying 
cargoes  both  of  Egyptian  and  Assyrian  goods,  visited  among 
other  places,  Argos,"^  Pliny  is  in  agreement  with  this,^  and 
Justin  gives  a  similar  account  in  these  words:  "The  Tyrian 
nation  was  founded  by  the  Phoenicians,  who,  being  disturbed 
by  an  earthquake,  and  leaving  their  native  land,  settled  first  of 
all  on  the  Assyrian  Lake  and  subsequently  on  the  shore  near  the 
sea,  founding  there  a  city  which  they  call  Sidon  from  the  abun- 
dance of  fish;  for  the  Phoenicians  call  a  fish  ' Sidon.' "^  If  the 
Phoenicians  had  been  autochthonous  their  marine  activities 
might  be  accounted  for  by  their  location,  their  narrow  strip  of 
fertile  coastland  affording  but  meager  opportunities  apart  from 
the  sea,  and  their  mountains  affording  the  wood  for  shipbuilding. 
But  since  it  is  clear  that  they  came  by  migration,  their  choice  of 
settlement  becomes  inexplicable  except  on  the  supposition  that 
they  were  a  sea-loving  people,  a  people  schooled  in  nautical 
commerce,  as  the  classical  historians  represented  them.^  Renan's 
conclusion  is  as  follows:  "The  greater  number  of  modern  critics 
admit  it  as  demonstrated,  that  the  primitive  abode  of  the 
Phoenicians  must  be  placed  on  the  lower  Euphrates,  in  the 
center  of  the  great  commercial  and  maritime  establishments  of 

einer  Sprache."  Vid.  also  C.  Brockelmann,  Grundriss  der  Vergleichenden 
Grammatik  der  Semitischen  Sprachen  (Berlin,  1907),  Vol.  I,  pp.  11-13;  and 
P.  Schroder,  Die  Phonizische  Sprache  (Halle,  1869),  pp.  9,  10,  15-21,  29,  117, 
et  al. 

1  Herodotus,  VII,  89. 

2  Ibid.,  I,  1. 

»  Plmy,  Nat.  Hist.,  IV,  21. 

*  Justin,  Historia,  XVIII,  3,  2.  What  body  of  water  Justin  means  by  the 
"Assyrian  Lake"  is  uncertain.  On  the  meaning  of  the  word  Sidon  see 
Eiselen,  Sidon,  pp.  10-15. 

*  Vid.  page  133  ff,  below. 


the  Persian  Gulf."^  The  occasion  of  the  migration  is  wholly 
unknown.  Justin's  statement  that  it  was  the  result  of  an  earth- 
quake^ is  extremely  improbable.  The  movement  was  doubtless 
akin  to  other  westward  movements  of  Semitic  peoples  from 
Mesopotamia  and  the  shores  of  the  Persian  Gulf,  but  its  im- 
mediate cause  was  probably  the  commercial  opportunities  of  the 
Mediterranean.  The  date  of  their  migration  to  the  shores  of 
the  Mediterranean  must,  for  the  present  at  least,  be  placed 
about  28(30  B.C.,  on  the  testimony  of  the  priests  of  Melkart 
recorded  by  Herodotus.^  They  stated  that  their  city  was 
founded  twenty-three  hundred  years  before  his  visit.  The  visit 
of  Herodotus  must  have  been  made  about  450  B.C.  On  the 
assumption  that  Tyre  was  founded  soon  after  the  coming  of  the 
Phoenicians  to  the  Mediterranean  coast,  the  date  for  the  migra- 
tion may  be  set  at  approximately  the  figure  given  above.  But 
the  migration  may  not  have  occurred  at  once;  it  may  have 
extended  over  a  period  of  many  years. 

Topography  and  Appearance 

On  the  shore  of  Syria  from  the  headland  of  Ras  al-Abiad  the 
plain  of  Tyre  stretches  northward  fifteen  miles  to  the  River 
Litany  (Leontes).  Opposite  the  middle  of  this  plain,  twenty 
miles  south  of  Sidon,  an  island  of  rock  stood  out  of  the  sea. 
It  was  on  this  island,  in  longitude  35°  15'  east,  and  latitude 
33°  15'  north^  that  Tyre  was  first  founded.^     It  took  its  name 

1  Renan,  Histoire  des  Langues  Semitiques,  II,  2,  page  183.  Vid.  also 
Eiselen,  Sidon,  page  28;  Rawlinson,  Phoenicia,  pages  20-22;  Pietschmann, 
Geschichte  der  Phonizier,  pages  109-126;  Maspero,  Struggle  of  the  Nations, 
pp.  63-64. 

2  Vid.  p.  2  above. 

'  Herodotus,  II,  44.     This  date  is  extremely  uncertain. 

*  Conder  and  Kitchener,  Survey  of  Western  Palestine,  Vol.  I,  Chart  I. 
Rawlinson,  Phoenicia,  p.  41.  Rand  McNally  and  Company's  Library  Atlas 
of  the  World,  (New  York  and  Chicago,  1912),  Vol.  II,  p.  80. 

5  The  relative  ages  of  Island  Tyre  and  Tyre-on-the-Mainland  have  been 
much  disputed.  Priority  was  accredited  to  Tyre-on-the-Mainland  by  Movers 
(Die  Phonizier,  Part  II,  Book  I,  pages  172, 173) ;  and  Rawlinson  (Phoenicia,  pp. 
40,  41),  and  this  conclusion  would  have  to  be  credited  if  we  could  accept  the 
answer  of  the  Tyrians  to  Alexander  at  its  face  value  (vid.  p.  55  below)  or  if  we 


Tyre  (Greek  Tu/jo?;  Phoenician  *11^;  Arabic  Sur;  Assyrian  and 
Babylonian  Sur-ru;  Hebrew  ll^j  or  *1ii  ;  Egyptian  Dara,  or  Tar, 
or  Taru  in  the  Amarna  letters;  early  Latin  Sarra)  from  the  island, 
the  Semitic  Sur,  meaning  Rock.  At  a  later  time  the  new  city,  or 
an  extension  of  the  old  city,  was  built  upon  the  mainland.  The 
city  upon  the  mainland  was  designated  as  Old  Tyre,  or  Palae- 
tyrus,  by  the  Greeks.  Beside  the  principal  island  lay  a  smaller 
one,  on  which,  in  the  earliest  historic  period,  stood  a  famous 
temple  of  Melkart.^  Hiram,  contemporary  of  David  and 
Solomon,  joined  the  two  islands,  reconstructed  and  adorned  the 
temples,  and  enlarged  the  space  of  his  capital  eastward  by 
wresting  a  considerable  area  from  the  sea.^  In  this  way  the 
island  attained  a  circumference  of  twenty-two  stadia,  about 
two  and  a  half  miles.^  By  means  of  piers,  a  harbor  was  made 
on  the  northern  side  of  the  island,  and  another  on  the  southern 
side;  the  first  was  called  the  Sidonian  harbor,  the  other  the 
Egyptian.     A  canal  through  the  city  connected  these.^ 

The  outer  walls,  on  the  side  toward  the  mainland,  were  one 
hundred  and  fifty  feet  high  and  were  surmounted  by  battle- 
ments, according  to  the  Greek  historians  of  Alexander's  siege. ^ 
The  royal  palace  was  in  the  southwestern  part  of  the  city.     The 

conclude  from  the  myth  related  by  Sanchoniathon  (vid.  p.  7  below)  that 
Tyre  was  founded  before  the  art  of  ship-building  wad  known.  However, 
Hengstenburg  argued  (De  Rebus  Tyriorum,  pp.  1-29)  that  Island  Tyre  was 
the  older;  Renan  (Mission  de  Phenicie,  pp.  576,  577)  and  Pietschmann  (Die 
Phon.,  pp.  68-70)  come  to  the  same  conclusion.  The  Tyre  of  the  Amarna 
letters  and  of  the  early  Egyptian  travelers  was  clearly  the  island  city .  The 
mainland  town  was  then  called  Sazu  (vid.  p.  9  below).  Maspero  states  the 
present  position  of  scholars  as  follows:  "Palaetyrus  is  now  generally  admitted 
to  have  been  merely  an  outpost  of  Tyre,  and  is  conjecturally  placed  by  most 
scholars  as  near  Ras  aJ-Ain."     (Vid.  Struggles  of  the  Nations,  p.  186.) 

1  It  had  been  supposed  that  the  smaller  island  lay  to  the  north  (Kenrick, 
Phoenicia,  p.  347;  Rawlinson,  Phoenicia,  p.  91),  but  excavations  show  that 
the  smaller  island  which  Hiram  joined  to  the  main  island  laid  to  the  southwest 
of  the  larger  island.  (Vid.  Benzinger,  Baedeker's  Palestine  and  Syria,  1912, 
p.  272.) 

2  Vid.  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  2,  7;  Against  Apion,  I,  17-18. 

3  Vid.  Strabo,  XVI,  2,  3. 
*  Vid.  Pliny,  V,  76. 

«  Vid.  Curtius,  IV,  2. 


chief  temple  was  probably  near  the  center:  the  Grand  Square 
(Evpvx^^po'i)  was  in  Hiram's  eastern  addition.^  The  city  was 
closely  built.  Some  of  its  buildings  were  many  stories  high.^ 
The  natural  slope  of  the  ground  showed  the  buildings  tier  on 
tier  to  one  who  viewed  them  from  the  mainland. 

The  water  supply  for  the  city  of  Tyre  came  from  the  wonderful 
springs  of  Ras  al-Ain,  south  of  the  city,  whose  great  reservoirs 
are  still  to  be  seen.  It  was  carried  to  Palaetyrus  by  an  aqueduct 
and  thence  was  taken  to  the  island  city  in  earliest  times  by 

Alexander  constructed  a  mole  from  the  mainland  to  the 
island,  and  deposits  of  sand  have  widened  this  until  now  the 
ancient  island  is  connected  with  the  shore  by  a  neck  of  land  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  wide.  The  Egyptian  harbor  has  so  completely 
silted  up  that  its  location  is  a  matter  of  question. 

The  appearance  of  the  island  city  called  forth  unbounded 
praise  from  many  lovers  of  the  picturesque.  Ezekiel  spoke  of  it 
as  "  of  perfect  beauty."* 

Strabo  speaks  of  Tyre  in  the  time  of  Augustus  as  follows: 

"The  foundation  of  her  colonies,  both  in  Libya  and  Iberia,  as  far  as 
the  Columns,  raises  the  glory  of  Tyre  far  higher  (than  that  of  Sidon). 
Each  lays  claim  to  the  title  '  Mother  of  the  Phoenicians.'  ...  It  is  said 
that  the  houses  at  Tyre  are  built  in  more  stories  than  at  Rome;  therefore, 
on  account  of  the  earthquakes  which  it  has  experienced,  the  town  has 
had  a  narrow  escape  of  being  destroyed:  it  also  received  great  damage 
at  the  siege  of  Alexander.  But  it  surmounted  all  these  misfortunes  and 
repaired  its  losses  partly  by  navigation,  in  which  the  Phoenicians  in 
general  have  at  all  times  surpassed  other  nations,  and  partly  by  their 
purple,  for  the  Tyrian  purple  is  acknowledged  to  be  the  best;  the  fishing 
(for  this  purpose)  is  carried  on  not  far  away.  Tyre  possessed  everything 
necessary  for  dyeing.    It  is  true  that  the  work-shops  of  so  many  dyers 

1  Vid.  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  2,  7;  Against  Apion,  I,  17-18. 

2  Vid.  Strabo,  Geography,  XVI,  2-23. 

3  Vid.  p.  13  below.  The  aqueducts  and  conduits  are  spoken  of  by  Menander 
as  existing  in  the  time  of  Shalmaneser.  (Josephus:  Antiq.,  IX,  14,  2.)  A!, 
modern  historians  agree  in  attributing  them  to  a  very  remote  antiquityl 
(Vid.  Kenrick,  Phoen.,  p.  384;  Renan,  Mission  de  Ph^nicie,  pp.  593,  594; 
Pietschmann,  Phon.,  p.  70.) 

4  Ezekiel,  XXVII,  3. 


make  residence  in  the  city  incommodious,  but  it  is  to  the  skill  of  her  work- 
men in  this  branch  of  her  industry  that  the  city  owes  her  wealth.  .  .  . 
She  obtained  a  confirmation  of  her  liberty  from  the  Romans  at  the  price 
of  light  conditions.  .  .  .  The  maritime  power  of  the  Tyrians  is  attested 
by  the  number  and  the  grandeur  of  their  colonies."^ 

Pliny,  writing  about  75  A.D.,  says:  "The  Tyre  so  famous  in 
ancient  times  for  its  offspring,  the  cities  to  which  it  gave  birth, 
Leptis,  Utica,  and  Carthage — Gades  also  which  she  founded 
beyond  the  limits  of  the  world.  At  the  present  day  all  her 
fame  is  confined  to  the  production  of  the  murex  and  the  purple. 
Its  circumference,  including  Palaetyrus,  is  nineteen  miles. "^ 

Jerome  (340-420  A.D.)  in  his  commentaries  on  Ezekiel, 
speaks  of  the  city  in  his  day  as  "nobilissima  et  pulcherrima." 

About  the  end  of  the  fourth  century,  or  the  beginning  of  the 
fifth,  Nonnus  wrote: 

"And  Dionysius  rejoiced  when  he  beheld  the  city  which  Neptune  had 
bounded  with  the  humid  girdle  of  the  sea.  Her  form  is  like  the  crescent 
moon.  And  he  beheld  what  seemed  a  double  wonder,  for  Tyre  lies  in  the 
sea,  being  bounded  by  the  waves,  yet  belongs  to  the  land.  She  is  Uke  a 
maiden  floating  motionless,  half  hidden  in  the  waters.  .  .  . 

"Never  have  I  seen  such  beauty,  for  the  lofty  trees  murmur  beside  the 
waves.  The  near-by  wood  nymph  listens  to  the  ocean  nymph  speaking  in 
the  sea,  and  the  mild  mid-day  breeze  breathing  from  Lebanon  on  the 
Tyrian  waves,  and  on  the  maritime  fields,  with  the  same  breath  that  ripens 
the  fruits,  fills  the  seaman's  sails,  at  once  cooUng  the  brow  of  the  husband- 
man and  filling  the  mariner's  sails.  .  .  . 

"0  City,  famous  throughout  the  world,  image  of  the  earth,  figure  of 
heaven,  thou  holdest  the  triangular  sword-belt  of  thy  fellow  the  sea."* 

The  Origin  and  Founding  of  Tyre 

Nothing  is  known  as  to  the  circumstances  of  the  founding  of 
Tyre.*    According  to  Tyrian  myths,  theirs  was  the  most  vener- 

1  Strabo,  XVI,  2-23. 
^  Pliny,  Natural  History,  V,  17. 
'  Nonnus,  Dionysiaca,  XL,  311  ff. 

*  For  a  full  discussion  of  the  various  mythological  accounts  of  the  city  vid. 
Movers,  Die  Phonizier,  Vol.  I,  p.  118  ff. 


able  city  in  the  world.  After  creation  came  a  race  of  demi-gods 
who  discovered  that  fire  could  be  produced  by  rubbing  pieces  of 
wood  together,  and  gave  this  boon  to  man.  Then  came  giants 
whose  names  were  conferred  upon  the  mountains  which  they 
occupied,  and  from  them  Cassius,  Lebanus,  Antilebanus  and 
Brathu  received  their  names.^  After  these  were  born  Shamen- 
rum  or  Hypsuranius,  and  Usoos  the  hunter.  Shamenrum 
dwelled  on  the  coast  of  the  future  town  of  Tyre.  He  invented 
huts  of  reeds,  rushes  and  papyrus.  A  conflict  arose  between 
the  two  brothers.  A  violent  storm  caused  the  trees  to  rub 
against  each  other  until  they  took  fire  and  the  forests  of  the 
neighborhood  were  consumed.  Usoos,  having  taken  a  tree  and 
broken  off  its  boughs,  was  the  first  to  venture  on  the  sea.  Arriv- 
ing at  one  of  the  islands  he  dedicated  two  pillars,  one  to  fire  and 
the  other  to  wind,  pouring  out  blood  of  beasts  that  he  had  taken 
in  hunting,  and  in  after  years  men  continued  to  worship  at  the 
pillars.  It  was  thus  that  the  island  city  of  Tyre  was  founded.^ 
According  to  another  legend,  the  island  was  not  originally 
fixed,  but  rose  and  fell  with  the  waves.  Between  the  two  peaks 
that  looked  down  upon  the  island  was  the  olive  tree  of  Astarte 
sheltered  by  a  curtain  of  flame.  An  eagle  thereon  watched  over 
a  serpent  coiled  around  the  trunk.  The  whole  island  would 
cease  to  float  as  soon  as  some  one  succeeded  in  sacrificing  the 
bird  to  the  gods.  Usoos  or  Herakles,  destroyer  of  monsters, 
taught  the  people  how  to  make  boats  and  manage  them.  He 
then  sailed  to  the  island.  The  bird  offered  itself  voluntarily  for 
sacrifice,  and  as  soon  as  its  blood  was  poured  out,  Tyre  rooted 
itself  firmly  to  its  place  in  the  sea.^  From  this  time  the  gods 
never  ceased  to  dwell  in  the  holy  island.  Here  Astarte  herself 
was  born,^  and  in  one  of  her  temples  there  was  shown  a  fallen 

1  The  identification  of  the  peak  Brathu  is  uncertain. 

2  Sanchoniathon,  Fragment  in  Philo  Byblius,  -Phoenicia.  Philo,  born  42 
A.D.,  represents  Sanchoniathon  or  Sanchuniathon  as  a  Phoenician  writer  of 
great  antiquity,  but  the  existence  of  Sanchoniathon,  outside  of  the  imagina- 
tion of  Philo,  has  been  seriously  doubted.  Philo's  citation  is  preserved  by 
Eusebius,  Praep.  Evang.,  I,  9, 10.    Vid.  P.  Migne,  Patrologae,  Vol.  XXI,  p.  7. 

3  Nonnus,  Dionysiaca,  XL,  428  ff. 

*  Cicero,  De  Natura  Deorum,  III,  23. 


star  which  she  had  brought  back  from  one  of  her  journeys.^ 
Baal  was  called  the  Melkart,  King  of  the  City.^ 

As  to  the  date  of  the  founding  of  Tyre,  there  is  much  uncer- 
tainty, Herodotus^  gives  an  account  of  his  visit  to  the  city 
and  his  investigations  there.  He  states  that  the  priests  of  the 
temple  of  Melkart  told  him  that  their  temple  was  built  when 
the  city  was  founded,  twenty-three  hundred  years  before  that 
date.  Assuming  the  visit  of  Herodotus  to  have  been  about 
450  B.C.,  we  have  2750  B.C.  for  the  founding  of  the  city. 

Justin*  says  that  Tyre  was  founded  one  year  before  the  capture 
of  Troy.  He  says :  "  The  Sidonians  many  years  after  the  building 
of  their  city,  were  defeated  by  the  king  of  Ascalon,  and  came 
in  their  ships  to  Tyre,  which  they  founded  a  year  before  Troy 
fell."  This  dates  the  founding  of  the  city  somewhere  near  1200 
B.C.  Josephus^  tells  us  that  Tyre  was  founded  two  hundred 
and  forty  years  before  the  building  of  the  temple  at  Jerusalem, 
which  agrees  approximately  with  the  date  given  by  Justin. 

But,  as  we  learn  from  the  Tel-el-Amarna  letters,^  Tyre  was  a 
great  city  two  centuries  earlier  than  the  date  given  by  Justin 
and  Josephus.  We  must  therefore  accept  the  account  of  Herod- 
otus for  the  present,  at  least. 

Earliest  Historic  Records 

As  early  as  1400  B.C.  Tyre  was  not  only  a  great  city  but 
was  considered  impregnable.''  Our  earliest  clear  record  of  events 
at  Tyre^  is  given  us  in  the  Amarna  letters.     It  is  probable  that 

1  Sanchoniathon  Vid.  Eusebius,  Praep.  Evang.,  I,  10. 

^  Kenrick,  History  of  Phoenicia,  pp.  322-323;  p.  146  below. 

3  Herodotus,  II,  44. 

*  Justin,  XVIII,  3. 

^  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  3. 

«  Vid.  p.  9  ff.  below, 

7  Vid,  Rib-Adda's  letter,  p.  12  below. 

8  "No  campaign  against  Tyre  is  mentioned  in  any  of  the  Egyptian  annals. 
The  expedition  of  Thutmosis  III  against  Senzauru  (Inscription  of  Amenem- 
habi  I,  20)  was  directed  not  against  the  'double  Tyre'  ,  ,  ,  but  against  a 
town  of  Coelo-Syria  mentioned  in  the  Tel-el-Amarna  tablets  with  the  orthog- 
raphy Zinzar."     Maspero,  The  Struggle  of  the  Nations,  p.  190. 


the  city  yielded  to  Thotmes  III  when  he  made  his  victorious 
campaigns  into  Syria.^  The  city  acknowledged  submission  to 
Egypt  at  the  time  of  Amenophis  IV. 

In  the  reign  of  this  Amenophis  IV,^  King  of  Egypt,  we  have 
through  the  Tel-el-Amarna^  letters  an  interesting  bit  of  Tyrian 
history.  The  Egyptian  power  in  western  Asi^  evidently  waned 
while  Amenophis  was  having  his  troubles  with  the  ancient 
priesthood  at  home.  Two  factions  were  at  war  in  the  Phoenician 
cities.  Rib-Adda  of  Byblus  (Gebal)  reported  the  revolt  of  his 
subjects  and  the  successes  of  his  rival,  Abd-Ashirta,^  and  his  son 
Aziru.  Cities  were  taking  sides.  Both  sides  professed  loyalty  to 
the  king  of  Egypt.  It  is  clear  that  all  had  been  under  Egyptian 
dominance.  Abi-Milki^  was  governor  of  Tyre.  He  belonged  to 
the  Rib-Adda  faction.  Zimrida,  governor  of  Sidon,  belonged  to 
the  other  side.  Through  his  agency  Samuru  had  fallen.  Now 
with  Aziru  he  besieged  the  Island  City  of  Tyre.  He  had  captured 
Sazu  on  the  mainland,  and  had  cut  off  Tyre's  supply  of  wood 
and  water,^  thus  desperately  harassing  the  city.  That  the  siege 
was  of  considerable  duration  is  shown  by  the  protracted  corre- 
spondence. Abi-Milki  sent  repeated  appeals  to  the  king  of 
Egypt  for  help.  We  have  four  of  these  letters  in  the  British 
Museum  (Numbers  28-31);  two  others  are  preserved  at  Gizeh 
(B.,  Numbers  98,  99),  and  one  at  Berlin   (B.,  Number  162). 

1  Vid.  Maspero,  The  Struggle  of  the  Nations,  p.  190;  also  Budge,  History 
of  Egypt,  Vol.  IV,  p.  31  ff. 

^  G.  A.  Cooke,  in  his  article  "Phoenicia"  in  the  Encyclopedia  Britannica, 
11th  ed.,  gives  1376-1366  as  dates  for  Amenophis  IV.  Bezold  gives  1466-1454 
(Tel-el- Amarna  Tablets  in  the  British  Museum,  p.  xxii).  Budge,  History  of 
Egypt,  Vol.  I,  pp.  154-56,  dates  the  reign  of  Amenophis  IV  at  not  later  than 
1400  B.C.  In  Vol.  IV,  Ch.  1,  he  dates  this  siege  at  about  1430  B.C.  Breasted, 
History  of  Ancient  Egyptians,  p.  428,  dates  Amenophis  IV,  1375-1358. 

^  Vid.  Bezold,  The  Tel-el- Amarna  Letters  in  the  British  Museum,  London, 
1891;  also  Winckler,  Die  Thontafeln  von  Tel-el-Amarna,  Berlin,  1896. 
Conder,  The  Tell  Amarna  Tablets,  London,  1893. 

*  Abd-Ashirta,  Phoenician  mOK'ynay,  Greek  A/SSao-rpdroj.  Josephus 
mentions  a  king  of  Tyre  by  this  name  (Against  Apion,  I,  8).     Vid.  p.  24  below. 

*  Abi-Milki,  Hebrew  Tl^D  ''2Ni  a  name  given  to  several  kings  of  PhiUstia, 
Gath,  Gerar,  etc.  Genesis  XX,  2;  XXVI,  1;  Psalms  XXXIV,  1;  Judges 
VIII,  31. 

« Vid.  p.  10  below. 


In  the  letter  (B.  98)  preserved  at  Gizeh,  Abi-Milki,  after  the 
customary  salutations  and  assurances  of  loyalty,  entreats  the 
king  to  send  provisions.^  The  second  letter  at  Gizeh  (B.  99) 
contains  a  petition  to  the  king  of  Egypt  that  he  will  order  his 
inspector  in  Syria  to  supply  him  with  wood  and  water  from  the 
city  of  Sazu.  This  letter  relates  that  Sidon  and  Hazor  have 
gone  over  to  the  enemy,  and  adds  that  the  king  of  Egypt  will 
now  be  able  to  judge  of  the  desperate  condition  of  Tyre.^  Abi- 
Milki  seems  to  have  received  a  letter  to  the  effect  that  royal 
orders  had  been  given  that  Sidon  and  Arvad  furnish  supplies. 
In  the  letter  preserved  at  Berlin  (B.  162)  Abi-Milki  expresses 
pleasure  at  the  king's  message,  but  reports  that  Sidon  and 
Arvad  have  supplied  no  wood  or  water.  The  style  of  the  letters 
is  shown  by  the  following  summary  of  B.  28  given  by  C.  Bezold:^ 

"To  the  king,  my  lord,  my  sun,  my  god,  thus  saith  Abi-Milki,  thy 
servant:  'Seven  times  and  seven  times  do  I  prostrate  myself  at  the  feet 
of  the  king,  my  lord.  I  am  the  dust  beneath  the  feet  of  the  king,  my 
lord,  and  upon  that  which  he  treadeth,  0,  my  king  and  my  lord,  thou 
are  like  unto  the  god  Shamash  and  to  the  god  Rimmon  in  heaven.  Let 
the  king  give  counsel  to  his  servant!  Now  the  king,  my  lord,  hath 
appointed  me  the  guardian  of  the  city  of  Tyre,  the  Royal  Handmaid, 
and  1  sent  a  report  in  a  table  unio  the  king,  my  lord;  but  I  have  received 
no  answer  thereunto.  I  am  an  officer  of  the  king,  my  lord,  and  I  duly 
report  all  that  cometh  to  pass,  be  it  favorable  or  unfavorable.' " 

Abi-Milki  then  asks  that  the  king  of  Egypt  let  him  have  twenty 
additional  soldiers^  to  defend  his  city.  If  the  king  will  graciously 
give  this  order,  his  servant  Abi-Milki  will  "live  forever."  There 
is  a  break  in  the  text  and  then  we  learn  that  Zimrida  (?)  has 
delivered  the  city  of  Samuru  to  Aziru  and  that  in  consequence 
"the  king  of  Egypt  did  not  eat  from  the  produce  of  his  city  or 
of  his  land."  When  Abi-Milki  heard  of  the  renown  of  the  king 
and  of  the  fame  of  his  troops,  he  feared  greatly,  and  all  the 
countries  round  about  trembled  because  they  had  not  protected 
the  king's  interests.     As  soon  as  Zimrida  knew  that  Abi-Milki 

1  C.  Bezold,  The  Tel-el-Amarna  Letters  in  the  British  Museum,  p.  Ixii. 
*  C.  Bezold,  The  Tel-el-Amarna  Letters  in  the  British  Museum,  p.  Ivi. 
'  Perhaps  meaning  twenty  companies. 


had  been  appointed  governor  of  Tyre,  he  attacked  and  captured 
the  city  of  Sazu,  and  therefore  the  suppHes  of  wood  and  water 
which  Abi-Milki  drew  from  thence  were  cut  off,  and  as  the 
Tyrians  were  unable  to  provide  themselves  in  any  other  way, 
some  of  them  died  of  want.     Abi-Milki  asks  for  fresh  instructions. 

The  king  of  Egypt  had  ordered  Abi-Milki  to  report  to  him 
everything  he  heard,  and  in  obedience  to  this  command  he  now 
writes,  "  Zimrida,  governor  of  Sidon,  and  Aziru  (a  dis- 
affected Egyptian  official),  and  the  people  of  Arvad,  had  joined 
in  a  league  and  had  entered  into  a  conspiracy  and  had  gathered 
together  their  ships  and  chariots  and  soldiers  and  had  made  an 
attack  upon  Tyre,  the  Handmaiden  of  the  King,"  but  the  "hand 
of  the  king  obtained  might  and  slew  them,"  and  they  were 
unable  to  capture  the  city.  But  the  city  of  Samuru  had  been 
given  to  Aziru  by  command  of  Zimrida.  "Concerning  these 
things  I  have  already  sent  a  tablet  to  the  king,  my  lord,  but  I 
have  received  no  answer.  I  am  surrounded  on  all  sides  with 
foes  and  we  have  neither  wood  nor  water." 

In  this  desperate  condition,  unable  to  obtain  supplies  from 
the  mainland,  and  only  getting  them  with  the  greatest  difficulty 
from  his  ships  because  of  the  blockading  fleet,  Abi-Milki  entreats 
the  king  to  send  him  instructions,  and  also  to  take  steps  to 
protect  his  city  Tyre  and  his  servant  Abi-Milki.  In  conclusion 
he  sends  this  tablet  by  the  hands  of  a  common  soldier  to  whom 
he  begs  the  king  to  give  an  immediate  answer.  The  destitute 
condition  of  his  household  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  he  is  com- 
pelled to  send  the  soldier  without  gifts  for  the  king,  instead  of  a 
proper  envoy. 

A  second  letter^  in  the  British  Museum  (B.  M.  29)  contains 
the  usual  profuse  salutation.  The  king  of  Egypt  seems  to  have 
ordered  that  Abi-Milki  should  be  general  of  the  troops,  whereat 
he  expresses  his  joy  (Yayaya!)  and  homage.  "I  will  guard  the 
city  of  Tyre,  the  great  city,  for  the  king,  my  lord,  and  I  will 
hold  it  until  the  king  shall  send  forth  his  power  to  help  me,  to 
give  me  water  to  drink  and  wood  to  warm  myself  withal." 

1  Bezold,  Tel-el-Amarna  Letters  in  the  British  Museum,  p.  lix. 


Zimrida  of  Sidon  and  Aziru,  son  of  Abd-Ashirta,  are  harassing 
him  daily. 

In  a  third  letter  in  the  British  Museum^  (B.  M.  30)  Abi-Milki 
writes  to  the  king  of  Egypt  with  the  usual  compliments,  and  with 
the  usual  complaints  against  Zimrida,  and  with  the  usual  plea 
for  wood  and  water.  He  is  sending  a  present  by  his  messenger, 
Ilu-Milki.^  In  reply  to  the  king's  orders  he  reports  the  news 
from  the  land  of  Canaan.  The  letter  concludes  with  an  urgent 
appeal  for  help. 

The  fourth  letter^  (B.M.  31)  of  Abi-Milki  in  the  British  Museum 
collection  is  not  well  preserved.  He  has  been  ordered  to  salute 
Shalmayati  and  supply  him  with  water.  He  has  no  water  to 
give  and  therefore  asks  the  king  to  take  steps  to  have  this  done 
himself.  He  still  professes  loyalty  and  seems  to  want  to  defend 
Tyre,  "the  city  of  Shalmayati."  But  he  seems  to  know  that  all 
is  lost.  He  calls  Tyre  "the  city  of  Shalmayati"  (perhaps  a 
rival  governor),  and  prepares  to  withdraw.  This  first  known 
siege  of  Tyre  seems,  therefore,  to  have  been  successful,  resulting 
in  the  overthrow  of  Abi-Milki  and  the  Rib-Adda  faction. 

Among  the  letters  from  Rib-Adda,  King  of  Gebal,  to  the 
king  of  Egypt,  is  one  referring  to  the  situation  at  Tyre  (B.  49). 
He  writes:  "Behold  Tyre  is  in  a  state  of  rebellion,  and  if  you 
doubt  my  words,  ask  my  brother  Yamilki  (Tj /D  H*')-  I  sent  my 
possessions  to  Tyre  for  safety,  but  now  the  Tyrians  have  slain 
their  general  and  also  my  sister  and  her  sons.  I  sent  my  sister's 
daughters  to  Tyre  fearing  Abd-Ashirta."^  Here  again  is  an 
indication  that  the  siege  was  successful  and  resulted  in  the 
overthrow  of  Abi-Milki. 

Only  a  few  meager  facts  about  Tyre  have  survived  from  the 
period  immediately  following  the  reign  of  Abi-Milki.  After  the 
period  of  the  Amarna  letters  it  would  seem  that  Tyre  and  other 
cities  of  Syria,  finding  that  Egypt  could  not  maintain  her  rule 

1  Bezold,  Tel-el-Amama  Letters  in  the  British  Museum,  p.  Ixi. 

2  Compare  Tj^C^JK,  Ruth  I:  2. 

'  Bezold,  Tel-el-Amarna  Letters  in  the  British  Museum,  p.  Ixii. 
*  Vid.  Budge,  History  of  Egypt,  Vol.  IV,  p.  215. 


by  arms,  refused  submission  and  became  independent.  But  in 
the  reign  of  Seti  I  (1313-1292)  Egypt  showed  again  her  power  to 
conquer.  In  the  hst  of  the  conquests  of  the  king,  preserved 
upon  a  sphinx  in  his  temple  at  Kurna,  Tyre  (D'ru)  is  among  the 
cities  named.^  A  traveler  writing  in  the  reign  of  Ramses  II 
(1292-1225  B.C.)2  says:  "...  They  speak  of  another  city  in 
the  sea,  Zor  (111?,  Tyre)  the  Lake  (port)  is  her  name.  The 
drinking  water  is  brought  to  her  in  boats.  She  is  richer  in 
fishes  than  in  sand."^ 

The  next  antiquity  of  interest  to  us  is  Papyrus  Anastasi  III 
of  the  British  Museum.  It  gives  us  a  few  pages  of  a  school 
copy-book  on  which  an  official  in  some  frontier  town  of  Pales- 
tine wrote  some  hurried  notes  about  the  persons  who  passed 
through  on  the  way  to  Syria.  We  are  interested  in  a  note  that 
runs  as  follows: 

"Year  3  (Merneptah),  first  month  of  the  third  season  (i.  e.,  ninth 
month),  fifteenth  day. 

"There  went  up  the  servant  of  Baal,  Roy,  son  of  Zeper  of  Gaza,  who 
had  with  him  for  Syria  two  letters;  for  the  captain  of  infantry,  Khay, 
one  letter;  for  the  chief  of  Tyre,  Baalat-Remeg,  one  letter."^ 

Another  of  the  notes  which  may  refer  to  Tyre  is  as  follows : 

"Year  3,  first  month  of  the  third  season  (ninth  month),  the day. 

"There  went  up  the  attendant  .  .  .  who  journeyed  to  (Upper)  Tyre 
(D'-r'  Rum). "6 

In  the  age  of  Joshua,  Tyre  was  "the  strong  city."*'     A  papyrus 

1  J.  H.  Breasted,  Ancient  Records  of  Egypt  (Univ.  of  Chicago,  1906),  Vol. 
Ill,  paragraph  114. 

2  The  dates  for  Egyptian  kings  given  on  this  and  the  following  page  are  as 
given  by  Breasted. 

3  Vid.  Henry  Brugsch-Bey's  History  of  Egypt,  translation  of  H.  D.  Sey- 
mour (London,  1879),  Vol.  II,  p.  105;  also  Bezold,  The  Tel-el-Amarna  Letters 
in  the  British  Museum,  p.  Ivii. 

*  Breasted,  Ancient  Records  of  Egypt,  Vol.  Ill,  paragraph  629,  630. 

6  Breasted,  Ancient  Records  of  Egypt,  Vol.  Ill,  632,  633.  There  is  un- 
certainty as  to  the  town  referred  to,  Miiller  being  inclined  to  place  it  on  the 
Jordan.     (Miiller:  Asien  und  Europa,  272.) 

6  Joshua  XIX,  29.  If  we  accept  1480  B.C.  as  the  date  for  the  Exodus  in 
accordance  with  Jewish  tradition  followed  by  Usher  et  al.,  we  have  as  the 


found  in  1891  in  Upper  Egypt,  opposite  Feshun,  and  now  in 
St.  Petersburg,  gives  the  report  of  an  officer  by  the  name  of 
Wenamon.^  It  belongs  perhaps  to  the  reign  of  Ramses  XII 
(1118-1090).  Wenamon  was  sent  to  secure  cedars  from  Lebanon 
for  the  king's  use  in  ship-building.  He  met  with  a  series  of 
mishaps  which  show  that  Egypt,  though  claiming  sovereignty, 
could  not  even  protect  her  own  messengers  in  Syria.  He  stopped 
at  Tyre  and  mentions  the  harbor,  but  unfortunately  his  record 
here  is  so  marred  that  nothing  else  can  be  made  out. 

The  Rise  of  Tyre  to  Supremacy  among  the  Phoenician  Cities 

The  statement  of  Josephus  that  Tyre  was  founded  two  hundred 
and  forty  years  before  the  building  of  the  temple  at  Jerusalem,^ 
and  that  of  Justin  that  it  was  founded  the  year  before  the  fall 
of  Troy,^  warrant  the  belief  that  something  unusual  occurred 
in  the  city's  history  about  1200  B.C.  The  city,  as  has  been 
shown,  was  founded  at  a  much  earlier  date.  It  may  be  that 
the  later  date  marks  an  awakening  and  the  beginning  of  a  new 
era  in  the  city's  life.  We  find  Tyre  in  commercial  supremacy  soon 
after  this  date.^  Perhaps  an  accession  of  strength  from  Sidon 
greatly  promoted  her  prosperity.  It  is  probable  that  the 
conditions  in  the  sister  city  were  such  as  to  divert  trade  to  Tyre. 
Foreign  conditions  were  also  favorable.  For  many  centuries  the 
Minoan  power  in  Crete,  as  we  learn  from  recent  discoveries, 
shared  the  seas  with  the  Phoenicians,  perhaps  antedating  them 
in  many  manufacturing,  commercial  and  marine  achievements.^ 

date  for  Joshua's  conquests  1440 B.C.  But  while  there  is  much  un- 
certainty as  to  the  time  of  the  Exodus,  it  is  now  usually  assigned  to  a  later  date. 
Rawlinson,  Brugsch,  Masp6ro  et  al.  date  it  in  the  reign  of  Meneptah; — Brugsch 
about  1300  B.C.,  Budge  about  1270  B.C.,  Lepsius  1314  B.C.  Breasted, 
Benzinger  et  al.  consider  the  Khabiri  of  the  Amarna  letters  the  van  of  the 
Hebrew  invasions  of  Palestine  by  people  kindred  to  the  Jacob  tribes.  Breasted 
places  the  entrance  of  the  Jacob  tribes  into  Palestine  as  late  as  the  reign  of 
Rameses  IV,  which  he  dates  1167-1161  B.C. 

^  Breasted,  Ancient  Records  of  Egypt,  Vol.  IV,  557-567. 

^  Vid.  page  8  above. 

*  Vid.  page  8  above. 

*  Vid.  page  134  et  seq.  below. 

5  Vid.  James  Blaikie,  The  Sea-Kings  of  Crete,  London,  1910;  A.  Mosso,  The 


But  the  Minoan  power  was  fast  falling  into  decay.     The  way 
to  the  sovereignty  of  the  seas  was  open. 

The  awakening  manifested  itself  in  quickened  courage  and 
new  enterprise.  As  early  as  1100  B.C.,  Tyrian  seamen  not  only 
passed  the  Gates  of  Hercules  and  dared  the  open  Atlantic;  but 
they  planted  the  colony  of  Utica  in  Africa,  and  that  of  Gades  in 
far-off  Iberia.^  Sailors  who  braved  the  real  and  imaginary  perils 
of  such  voyages  must  be  accredited  with  great  courage;  such 
courage  made  Tyre  the  queen  of  the  seas.  And  citizens  willing 
to  leave  the  comforts  of  Tyrian  homes  for  pioneer  dwellings  on 
the  far-off  edge  of  the  world  must  be  accredited  with  a  great 
spirit  of  commercial  enterprise;  and  such  spirit  made  Tyre  the 
mart  of  the  nations. 

Dawn  of  Mediterranean  Civilization,  translation  of  M.  C.  Harrison,  New  York, 
1911,  pp.  64-211 ;  R.  M.  Burrows,  The  Discoveries  in  Crete  and  their  Bear- 
ing on  the  History  of  Ancient  Civilization,  London,  1907. 
1  Vid.  pp.  134  ff .  below. 



After  Abi-Milki,  it  is  probable  that  Shalmaj^ati  was  the  King 
of  Tyre.^  Unless  we  are  to  understand  that  Baalat-Remeg  was 
king  of  the  city,^  no  record  remains  to  tell  us  who  held  the 
throne  after  Shalmayati  until  the  time  of  Abi-baal,  and  all  the 
information  that  has  survived  regarding  Abi-baal  is  limited  to 
that  which  Josephus  gives,  viz.,  that  he  was  king  of  Tyre  and 
father  of  Hiram.^ 

When  Abi-baal  died,  his  son  Hiram  (DID,  High-Born,  or 
D1^n[^^],  Brother-of-the-Lofty)  succeeded  to  the  throne.  The 
city  over  which  Hiram  reigned  had  developed  many  arts  to  a  high 
state  of  perfection.  The  achievements  in  architecture,  masonry, 
carpentry,  metallurgy,  the  weaving  of  delicate  fabrics,  sewing  and 
the  like  were  not  the  product  of  a  single  generation. 

Hiram  seems  to  have  been  a  statesman  worthy  of  his  time. 
He  enlarged  the  city  by  filling  in  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  island^ 
and  made  a  Grand  Square  (Evpvxcopo^i)  in  this  new  addition  to 
the  city.^  To  the  southwest  of  the  main  island  was  a  smaller 
island  upon  which  was  the  temple  of  Melkart.^  Hiram  joined  the 
two  islands.^  He  reconstructed  the  temples  of  the  city,  and  for 
this  purpose  he  brought  materials  of  wood  from  Mount  Lebanon.^ 
The  temple  of  Melkart  he  adorned  with  donations  of  gold  and 
in  it  he  dedicated  a  pillar  of  gold.^  It  was  probably  at  this  time 
that  the  harbors  were  enlarged  and  connected  by  canal  through 

^  Vid.  p.  12  above. 

'^  Vid.  p.  13  above. 

^  Vid.  statements  of  Menander  and  Dius  quoted  by  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII, 
5,  and  Against  Apion,  I,  14-18.  Josephus  says  of  Menander:  "This  Menan- 
der, the  Ephesian,  wrote  the  acts  that  were  done  both  by  the  Greeks  and  the 
Barbarians  under  every  one  of  the  Tyrian  kings,  and  had  taken  much  pains 
to  learn  their  history  out  of  their  own  records."  Of  Dius  he  says:  "One  that 
is  believed  to  have  written  the  Phoenician  history  after  an  accurate  manner." 

*  Vid.  p.  4  above. 



the  city.^  But  that  which  preserved  his  deeds  in  the  knowledge 
of  men  was  his  alUance  with  Israel. 

Israel  was  just  coming  to  her  glory.  Until  the  time  of  David 
the  subjugation  of  the  Canaanites  had  been  incomplete.^  In 
the  period  of  the  Judges  we  find  Israel  a  prey  to  one  after  another 
of  the  Canaanitish  tribes.^  But  under  the  leadership  of  King 
David,  contemporary  of  Hiram,  Israel  had  defeated  the  Phil- 
istines, the  Moabites,  the  Edomites,^  the  Ammonites,^  the  Syrians, 
and  had  extended  her  borders  even  to  the  Euphrates.^ 

Hiram  sent  a  friendly  embassy  to  David  and  opened  nego- 
tiations, a  result  of  which  was  that  cedar  trees  were  sent  to 
Jerusalem,  Tyrian  carpenters  and  masons  were  also  supplied 
by  Hiram,  and  in  due  time  the  royal  palace  of  King  David  was 
built.^  The  alliance  continued  through  the  life  of  David.  In 
his  closing  years,  when  David  was  collecting  materials  for  the 
Temple,  he  was  aided  by  the  "Zidonians  and  they  of  Tyre."^ 

When  Solomon  inherited  the  throne  of  his  father  David,  he 
inherited  also  his  purpose  to  erect  the  Temple  at  Jerusalem. 
And  Solomon  sent  to  Hiram,  the  King  of  Tyre,  saying: 

"As  thou  didst  deal  with  David  my  father,  and  didst  send  him  cedars 
to  build  him  an  house  to  dwell  therein,  even  so  deal  with  me.  Behold, 
I  build  an  house  for  the  name  of  the  Lord,  my  God,  to  dedicate  it  to 
him  .  .  .  and  the  house  that  I  build  is  great :  for  great  is  our  God  above 
all  gods.  .  .  .  Now  therefore  send  me  a  man  cunning  to  work  in  gold, 
and  in  silver,  and  in  brass,  and  in  iron,  and  in  purple,  and  crimson,  and 
blue,  and  that  can  skill  to  grave  all  manner  of  gravings,  to  be  cunning 
with  men  that  are  with  me  in  Juda  and  in  Jerusalem,  whom  David  my 
father  did  provide.  Send  me  also  cedar  trees,  and  fir  trees,  and  algum 
trees,  out  of  Lebanon:  for  I  know  that  thy  servants  can  skill  to  cut  timber 
in  Lebanon;  and,  behold,  my  servants  shall  be  with  thy  servants,  even 
to  prepare  me  timber  in  abundance;  for  the  house  which  I  am  about  to 
build  shall  be  wonderfully  great.  And,  behold,  I  will  give  to  thy  servants, 
the  hewers  that  cut  timber,  twenty  thousand  measures  of  beaten  wheat, 
and  twenty  thousand  measures  of  barley,  and  twenty  thousand  baths 
of  wine,  and  twenty  thousand  baths  of  oil." 

1  Vid.  p.  4  above.  ^  II  Samuel,  XIX. 

» II  Samuel,  V,  6-9.  « II  Samuel,  VIII,  10;  I  Kings,  IV,  21. 

s  Judges,  III-XVI.  '  II  Samuel,  V,  11-12. 

^  II  Samuel,  VIII.  «  j  Chronicles,  XXIT,  4. 


Then  Hiram  the  king  of  Tyre  answered  in  writing  which  he 
sent  to  Solomon:  "Because  the  Lord  loveth  his  people,  he  hath 
made  thee  king  over  them."     Hiram  said,  moreover: 

"Blessed  be  Jahveh  the  God  of  Israel,  that  made  heaven  and  earth, 
who  hath  given  to  David  the  King  a  wise  son,  endued  with  discretion 
and  understanding,  that  should  build  an  house  for  Jahveh,  and  an  house 
for  his  kingdom.  And  now  I  have  sent  a  cunning  man,  endued  with 
understanding,  of  Hiram  my  father's,  the  son  of  a  woman  of  the  daughters 
of  Dan,  and  his  father  was  a  man  of  Tyre,  skilful  to  work  in  gold,  and  in 
silver,  and  in  brass,  in  iron,  in  stone,  and  in  timber,  in  purple,  and  in 
blue,  in  fine  linen,  and  in  crimson,  and  to  grave  any  manner  of  graving, 
and  to  devise  any  device:  that  there  may  be  a  place  appointed  unto  him 
with  thy  cunning  men,  and  with  the  cunning  men  of  my  lord  David  thy 
father.  Now  therefore  the  wheat,  and  the  barley,  the  oil  and  the  wine 
which  my  lord  hath  spoken  of,  let  him  send  unto  his  servants:  and  we 
will  cut  wood  out  of  Lebanon,  as  much  as  thou  shalt  need:  and  we  will 
bring  it  to  thee  in  floats  by  sea  unto  Joppa:  and  thou  shalt  carry  it  up 
to  Jerusalem."^ 

The  agreement  was  made,  and  while  the  rough  work  was 
done  by  the  subjects  of  Solomon,  the  skilled  artisans  of  Hiram 
directed  the  work  under  the  guidance  of  the  master  workman 
referred  to  above. 

It  is  clear  that  the  Jewish  writers  were  greatly  impressed 
with  the  architectural  skill  of  the  Phoenicians.  We  read  that 
the  temple  was  built  of  stones  made  ready  at  the  quarry,  and  so 
perfectly  had  they  been  made  ready  that  "there  was  neither 
hammer  or  axe  or  any  tool  of  iron  heard  in  the  house,  while  it 
was  in  building."^  Josephus  tells  us:^  "Now  the  whole  structure 
of  the  temple  was  made  with  great  skill,  of  polished  stones,  and 
those  laid  together  so  very  harmoniously  and  smoothly  that 
there  appeared  to  the  spectators  no  sign  of  any  hammer,  nor  other 
instrument  of  architecture,  but  as  if,  without  any  use  of  them, 
the  entire  materials  had  naturally  united  themselves  together." 

1  The  account  of  the  agreement  between  Hiram  and  Solomon  is  given 
briefly  in  I  Kings,  V,  1-12.  It  is  enlarged  in  II  Chronicles,  II,  3-15.  Jo- 
sephus, Antiq.,  VIII,  2,  quotes  the  correspondence  rather  freely. 

2 1  Kings,  VI,  7. 

'  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  3. 


The  Jews  were  much  impressed  with  the  "great  stones" 
and  "wrought  stones"  that  composed  the  foundation.^  They 
greatly  admired  the  skill  shown  in  the  carving  of  wood,  the 
graving  of  gold,  in  the  adornments  of  precious  stones,  and  the 
work  in  blue,  and  purple,  and  crimson,  and  fine  linen  .^ 

Before  the  temple,  on  the  right  hand  and  on  the  left,  were 
placed  two  massive  hollow  pillars  of  brass  eighteen  cubits  in 
height,^  each  surmounted  by  a  chapiter  five  cubits  high,  called 
Jachin  and  Boaz.  These  may  have  been  modeled  after  the  two 
pillars  in  the  famous  temple  of  Melkart^  at  Tyre,  one  of  which, 
overlaid  in  gold,  Hiram  had  lately  set  up.^  An  altar  of  brass 
was  made  for  the  burnt  offerings;  it  was  twenty  cubits  long, 
twenty  cubits  wide  and  ten  cubits  high.  A  brazen  sea  in  hemi- 
spherical form  and  ten  cubits  in  diameter  was  cast  and  set  up 
on  twelve  brazen  oxen  that  faced  toward  the  four  directions  of 
the  compass.^  Brazen  bases  for  ten  lavers  were  made;  these 
were  ornamented  with  figures  of  lions,  oxen  and  cherubim  (or 
"eagles,"  according  to  Josephus).^ 

Nothing  has  survived  of  the  treasures  of  the  Temple  to  tell 
us  of  Tyrian  skill.  The  Temple  was  burned  and  its  treasures 
plundered  by  Nebuzaradan,  captain  of  the  hosts  of  Nebuchad- 
rezzar, King  of  Babylon,  in  the  year  588  B.C.^ 

Hiram  obtained  as  a  mark  of  the  esteem  of  Solomon,  a  gift 
which  he  seems  not  to  have  appreciated.^  Because  Hiram  had 
furnished  gold  and  silver,  and  cedar  trees,  and  fir  trees,  Solomon 
gave  him  a  district  of  Galilee  bordering  on  his  own  possessions 
and  containing  twenty  cities.     Hiram  went  from  Tyre  to  see 

^  Vid.  I  Kings,  V,  17-18,  and  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  3. 

2Vid.  I  Kings,  VI,  14-36,  and  II  Chronicles,  III,  3-16;  also  Josephus, 
Antiq.,  VIII,  3. 

3  For  the  height  of  these  two  famous  pillars,  vid.  I  Kings,  VII,  15;  II  Kings, 
XXV,  17;  Jer.  LII,  21;  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  3.  The  35  cubits  of  II 
Chron.,  Ill,  15,  is  clearly  wrong. 

*  Vid.  Herodotus,  II,  44 

5  Vid.  p.  16  above. 

8 1  Kings,  VII;  II  Chron.,  IV;  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  3. 

'  Ibid. 

« II  Kings,  XXV,  8-17;  Jer.,  LII,  12-23. 

9 1  Kings  IX  10-11;  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  5. 


the  cities  which  Solomon  had  given  him;  and  they  pleased  him 
not.  And  he  said,  What  cities  are  these  which  thou  hast  given 
me,  my  brother?  And  he  called  them  the  land  of  Cabul,  which, 
according  to  Josephus,  is  a  Phoenician  word  meaning  "what  does 
not  please."^ 

In  the  age  of  Hiram  we  have  some  light  on  Tyrian  commerce 
and  navigation.  Solomon's  conquest  of  the  Edomites  gave  him 
possession  of  the  port  of  Eziongeber,  near  Eloth  on  the  Red 
Sea.  Here  he  built  a  fleet  of  ships  for  trade  in  the  eastern  and 
southern  waters;  and  Hiram  furnished  "shipmen  who  had 
knowledge  of  the  sea."^  This  fleet  imported  almug  trees  (per- 
haps sandal  wood),  precious  stones,^  and  gold  of  Ophir.  Solo- 
mon's returns  for  a  single  voyage  are  said  to  have  been  four 
hundred  and  twenty  talents  of  gold.'* 

On  the  basis  of  II  Chronicles,  IX,  21,  it  has  been  believed 
that  Solomon  had  a  fleet  in  the  Mediterranean  waters;  but  the 
Chronicler  here  interpreting  I  Kings,  X,  22,  reads  "ships  to 
Tarshish"  for  "ships  of  Tarshish, "  and  a  "ship  of  Tarshish" 
seems  to  have  been  only  a  particular  kind  of  a  ship. 

Palestine  has  always  traded  with  Asia  Minor  through  Tarsus 
of  Cicilia  which  the  Arabs  call  "Tarshish,"^  and  this  may  be  the 
Tarshish  of  Genesis,  X,  4.  But  most  modern  authorities®  agree 
that  the  name  was  given  to  the  region  of  Tartessus'^  in  Spain, 
which  appears  to  have  extended  from  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar  to 
the  mouth  of  the  Guadalquiver.  We  know  that  Tyrian  colonists 
made  settlements  in  these  regions  as  early  as  1100  B.C.,^  and 

1 1  Kings  IX,  10-13;  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  5.  The  district  was  probably 
assigned  as  a  thing  "pledged,"  7133  from  p33,  to  bind;  but  when  Hiram 
found  it  of  little  value  to  him,  he  seems  to  have  shrewdly  interpreted  its 
name  as  3  ^  as,  711  =  ?2^  not,  i.  e.,  '^as  good  as  nothing." 

2 1  Kmgs,  IX,  27. 

3 1  Kings,  X,  11. 

*  I  Kings,  IX,  28. 

^  Thompson,  The  Land  and  the  Book,  T,  p.  16. 

^  Vid.  Krall,  Tyrus  und  Sidon,  p.  50;  Rawlinson,  Phoenicia,  p.  69;  Pietsch- 
mann,  Geschichte  der  Phonizier,  p.  286. 

^  Arrian,  III,  86;  Diodorus,  V,  35;  Strabo,  III,  147. 
Vid.  p.  134  below. 


that  Tyre  carried  on  a  vastly  profitable  commerce  with  these 

For  the  voyages  to  the  Spanish  coast  the  Phoenicians  must 
have  used  their  largest  and  strongest  vessels.  Because  of  this, 
a  "ship  of  Tarshish"  seems  to  have  come  to  represent  a  certain 
kind  of  great  strong  ship^  much  as  the  word  "Indiaman"  came 
to  represent  its  specific  type  of  vessel  in  the  English  service. 
It  is  clear  that  the  "ships  of  Tarshish"  of  I  Kings,  XXII,  48, 
were  for  service  in  the  Red  Sea  and  the  east,  though  the  Chronicler 
as  before  interprets  the  expression  as  "ships  to  Tarshish"  (II 
Chron.,  XX,  36-37).  It  is  easy  to  see  how  Israel,  holding  the 
territory  through  which  the  caravans  of  Tyre  must  transport 
their  merchandise  for  the  eastern  trade,  could  claim  a  share  in 
that  trade;  but  there  are  no  evident  reasons  why  Tyre  should 
have  shared  with  them  the  commerce  of  the  Mediterranean. 
Then,  the  imports  of  this  fleet  of  Solomon  could  not  have  come 
from  Tarshish.  The  fleet  brought  gold,  silver,  ivory,  apes,  and 
peacocks.^  While  the  ivory  and  apes  might  have  been  gotten  in 
North  Africa,  the  peacocks  almost  certainly  came  from  India 
or  Ceylon,  their  native  home.^  Solomon's  "ships  of  Tarshish" 
therefore  sailed  in  eastern  waters,  and  the  fact  that  they  made 
three-year  voyages  is  easily  understood.  The  wealth  that  came 
to  Israel  through  these  commercial  ventures  under  Tyrian  direc- 
tion is  suggestive  of  the  golden  streams  that  must  have  flowed 
into  the  coffers  of  Tyre,  the  real  Mistress  of  the  Sea. 

There  was  an  interesting  tilt  of  shrewdness  between  Hiram 
and  Solomon.  Josephus  says:  "Moreover  the  king  of  Tyre 
sent  sophisms  and  enigmatical  sayings  to  Solomon,  and  desired 
that  he  would  solve  them  and  free  them  from  the  ambiguity 
that  was  in  them.     Now  so  sagacious  and  understanding  was 

1  Vid.  p.  138  et  seq.  below. 

2  1  Kings,  XXII,  48  (Compare  II  Chron.,  XX,  36-37);  Psalms,  XLVIII, 
7;  Isa.,  II,  16. 

3 1  Kings,  X,  22:  II  Chron.,  IX,  21. 

*  "The  peacock  is  native  to  India  and  Ceylon,  in  some  parts  of  which  it  is 
very  abundant.  .  .  .  The  Greeks  probably  had  but  slight  knowledge  of  it 
until  after  Alexander's  conquest."  A.  Newton,  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  11th 
ed.,  Article  on  Peacock. 


Solomon,  that  none  of  his  problems  were  too  hard  for  him,  but 
he  conquered  them  all  by  his  reasonings,  and  discovered  their 
hidden  meaning  and  brought  them  to  light. "^  That  seems  to 
be  Israel's  side  of  the  story.  But  the  fragment  from  the  Tyrian 
writer  Dius,  which  Josephus  preserves  for  us,  gives  us  a  different 
version.  According  to  this  version,  "Solomon  who  was  then 
king  of  Jerusalem,  sent  riddles  to  Hiram;  and  desired  that  he 
might  receive  the  like  from  him,  but  that  he  who  could  not  solve 
them  should  pay  money  to  him  who  did  solve  them,  and  that 
Hiram  accepted  the  conditions;  and  when  he  was  not  able  to 
solve  the  riddles,  he  paid  a  great  deal  of  money  for  his  fine: 
but  that  he  afterwards  did  solve  the  proposed  riddles  by  means 
of  Abdemon,  a  man  of  Tyre;  and  that  Hiram  proposed  other 
riddles  which,  when  Solomon  could  not  solve,  he  paid  back  a 
great  deal  of  money  to  Hiram. "^  Unfortunately  these  dark 
sayings  and  their  answers  are  lost,  and  we  have  no  way  of  weigh- 
ing the  wit  of  these  friendly  kings. 

Hiram  lived  fifty-three  years  and  reigned  thirty-four  years. 
Upon  his  death,  his  son,  Beleasarus  (Baalusur)  succeeded  to  the 
throne.^  Three  miles  distant  from  the  modern  town  of  Sur,  and 
before  the  village  of  Hannawe,  stands  one  of  the  most  remark- 
able monuments  of  ancient  Tyre  that  time  has  spared.  It  is 
called  the  Kabr  Hiram,  the  tomb  of  Hiram.  The  base  or 
pedestal  consists  of  two  tiers  of  great  stones,  each  three  feet 
thick,  thirteen  feet  long,  and  eight  feet,  eight  inches  broad. 
Upon  this  rests  the  sarcophagus  formed  of  a  single  block,  which 
is  twelve  feet  long,  eight  feet  broad,  and  six  feet  high.  The 
stone  lid  covering  the  sarcophagus  is  somewhat  smaller  and 
slightly  pyramidal  in  form.  It  is  five  feet  thick.  The  entire 
length  is  twenty-one  feet.^  Renan  discovered  a  rock  chamber 
under  the  tomb,  to  which  steps  descended  from  the  north  end 

*  Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  5. 

^  Josephus,  Against  Apion,  I,  17. 

'  Josephus,  Against  Apion,  I,  18,  calls  this  king  BaXeofd/sos,  =  IV  ?]}2  or 

nry  hv2. 

*  These  measurements  are  given  by  Dr.  Thompson.  Vid.  "The  Land  and 
the  Book,"  III,  600. 


of  the  monument.^  At  some  time  a  large  hole  has  been  broken 
in  the  eastern  end  of  the  sarcophagus  and  the  contents  have 
been  removed.^  This  weather-beaten  structure  bears  the  marks 
of  high  antiquity.  One  is  easily  tempted  to  believe  the  tradi- 
tions that  ascribe  it  to  Hiram,  friend  of  David  and  Solomon; 
rugged,  unpolished,  heroic,  mysterious,  solitary,  it  is  a  fit  monu- 
ment of  such  a  king.  But  whether  the  body  of  that  King  Hiram 
ever  rested  here  or  not,  we  do  not  know. 

1  Renan,  Mission  de  Phdnicie,  p.  600. 

2  Rawlinson,  History  of  Phoenicia,  p.  104. 



JosEPHUS,  quoting  from  the  Phoenician  history  of  Menander, 
says:  "  Upon  the  death  of  Hiram,  Beleazarus  (*ll^"7^^),his  son, 
took  the  kingdom;  he  lived  forty-three  years  and  reigned  seven 
years.  After  him  came  his  son  Abd-Astartus  (n*int-^i7~"l!Il^); 
he  lived  twenty-nine  years  and  reigned  nine  years.  Now 
four  sons  of  his  nurse  plotted  against  him  and  slew  him, 
the  eldest  of  whom  reigned  twelve  years.     After  them  came 

Astartus  (H^int^i?),  the  son  of  Deleastartus  (n*inti^i7"H)- 
He  lived  fifty-four  years  and  reigned  twelve  years.  After  him 
came  his  brother  Aserymus  (D"n"C^^^)j  who  lived  fifty-four  years 
and  reigned  nine  years.  He  was  slain  by  his  brother  Pheles 
(5^/S)  who  took  the  kingdom  and  reigned  but  eight  months, 
though  he  lived  fifty  years.  He  was  slain  by  Ithobalus  (!?^D"n  t^) 
the  priest  of  Astarte,  who  reigned  thirty-two  years  and  lived 
sixty-eight  years.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Badezorus 
CnliilDi?)  who  lived  forty-five  years  and  reigned  six  years. 
He  was  succeeded  by  Matgenus  (|nD),  his  son.  He  lived  thirty- 
two  years  and  reigned  nine  years.  Pygmalion  (|T^^^"D^D) 
succeeded  him;  he  lived  fifty-six  years  and  reigned  forty-seven 
years.  Now  in  the  seventh  year  of  his  reign  his  sister  fled 
away  from  him  and  built  the  city  of  Carthage  in  Libya."^ 

To  this  Josephus  adds:  "So  the  whole  time  from  the  reign  of 
Hiram  to  the  building  of  Carthage,  amounts  to  the  sum  of  one 
hundred  and  fifty-five  years  and  eight  months.  Since,  then, 
the  temple  was  built  at  Jerusalem  in  the  twelfth  year  of  the 

^  Josephus,  Against  Apion,  I,  18.  Cf.  the  quotation  of  Menander  as  pre- 
served by  Eusebius,  Historia,  Book  I,  ch.  XVI,  H  4,  vid.  Migne,  Patrologae, 
Vol.  19,  p.  172.  For  full  discussion  of  the  early  chronology  of  Tyre,  vid. 
Movers,  Die  Phonizier,  I,  p.  138  ff. 



reign  of  Hiram,  there  were  from  the  building  of  the  temple  to 
the  building  of  Carthage,  one  hundred  and  forty-three  years 
and  eight  months."^  But  when  we  add  twenty-two  years  of 
Hiram's  reign^  to  the  years  of  the  succeeding  kings  to  the  seventh 
year  of  Pygmalion,  as  given  above,  the  sum  is  one  hundred  and 
twenty-five  years;  according  to  which  Carthage  was  founded 
not  one  hundred  and  forty-three  years,  but  one  hundred  and 
twenty-five  years  after  the  founding  of  the  temple,  and  so  we 
have  another  of  the  many  vexing  difficulties  of  ancient  chronology. 

Within  this  period  of  Tyre's  history,  her  religion  deeply 
affected  the  life  of  Israel.  According  to  the  Tyrian  annals  just 
referred  to,  Ithobalus,  priest  of  Astarte,  who  slew  his  predecessor 
and  assumed  the  crown,  was  the  seventh  king  after  Hiram,  and 
the  years  of  the  reigns  as  given  above  make  him  a  contemporary  of 
Ahab.  Perhaps  it  was  religious  zeal  that  led  him  to  espouse  his 
daughter  Jezebel  to  Ahab,^  though  the  alliance  with  the  bold 
warrior  king  of  Israel  was  not  without  political  advantages  as 
well.  Jezebel  brought  a  vast  number  of  the  priests  of  Baal  with 
her.  Ahab  was  persuaded  to  build  a  temple  to  the  Tyrian  god 
on  the  hill  of  Samaria.^ 

At  the  sanctuaries  of  Ashteroth,  four  hundred  priests  or 
"prophets"  of  Jezebel  ministered,  while  at  those  of  Baal,  four 
hundred  and  fifty  more  were  engaged.^  There  was  a  great 
contest  between  the  faith  of  Israel  and  that  of  Tyre.  As  a 
part  of  that  contest,  according  to  the  account  in  I  Kings,  XVII, 
there  was  a  great  drought,  and  according  to  the  Hebrew  account 
this  was  finally  broken  by  the  prayer  of  Elijah.^  It  is  an  inter- 
esting fact  that  Menander  mentioned  this  drought  in  his  account 
of  the  acts  of  Ithobalus  or  Ethbaal,^  King  of  Tyre,  as  follows: 

1  Josephus,  Against  Apion,  I,  18.     Vid.  p.  24,  note  1  above. 

2  Vid.  p.  22  above. 
3 1  Kings,  XVI,  31. 

*  I  Kings,  XVI,  32. 

*  I  Kings,  XVIII,  19.  Ashteroth  or  Astarte  was  identified  as  Aphrodite  by 
the  Greeks.     Vid.  Lucian,  De  Dea  Syria,  6. 

6 1  Kings,  XVIII,  41^6. 

'  Note  that  Ethbaal,  King  of  Tyre  (Josephus,  Antiq.,  VIII,  13:2),  is  called 
King  of  the  Sidonians  in  I  Kings,  XVI,  31.  The  Phoenicians  were  frequently 
called  Sidonians. 


"Under  him  there  was  a  want  of  rain  from  the  month  Hyperberetaeus 
till  the  month  Hyperberetaeus  of  the  year  following;  but  when  he  made 
supplications,  there  came  great  thunderings.  This  Ethbaal  built  the 
city  of  Botrys  in  Phoenicia,  and  the  city  of  Auza  in  Libya."^ 

Fearful  persecutions  were  a  part  of  the  contest.  Jezebel  slew 
many  of  the  prophets  of  God.^  Elijah,  as  a  leader  of  Israel's 
religion,  slew  the  prophets  of  Baal  in  Mount  Carmel.'  But 
Elijah  soon  realized  that  the  nation  was  turning  to  Baal  worship. 
The  king  accepted  the  religion  of  his  queen,  and  the  Tyrian 
worship  presented  such  attractions  that  the  whole  people  fol- 
lowed the  royal  example,  fell  away  from  the  worship  of  Jehovah, 
and  became  votaries  of  Baal  and  Ashteroth.'*  The  fascination 
is  seen  in  its  persistence. 

"The  pure  cult  of  Judaism — the  one  hope  of  the  world — contracted 
a  well-nigh  indelible  stain  from  the  proselytizing  efforts  of  Jezebel,  and 
Athaliah,  and  their  furious  persecutions;  the  heavenly  light  passed  under 
a  thick  black  cloud,  and  it  required  prolonged  convulsions  throughout  the 
whole  East,  the  downfall  of  Israel  and  Judah,  and  the  long  purgation  of 
the  Captivity,  to  undo  the  effects  brought  about  with  a  light  heart  by  a 
royal  bigot,  and  his  cruel  daughter  and  grand-daughter."* 

^  Josephus,  Antiquities,  VIII,  13. 

2 1  Kings,  XVIII,  13. 

»  I  Kings,  XVIII,  49. 

*  The  evil  influences  that  thus  came  in  are  declared  (II  Kings,  XVIII, 
16-20)  to  have  been  among  the  forces  that  wrought  the  overthrow  of  Israel 
and  finally  led  to  the  Captivity  of  Judah. 

6  Rawlinson,  History  of  Phoenicia,  p.  117. 


tyke's  resistance   to  ASSYRIAN  ENCROACHMENT 

Tyre  felt  the  force  of  Assyrian  encroachment  for  the  first 
time  in  the  early  half  of  the  ninth  century  B.C.  It  was  in  876 
B.C.^  that  the  Assyrian  King,  Asshurnazirpal,  appeared  on  the 
heights  of  Lebanon  overlooking  the  sea,  and  demanded  the 
submission  and  tribute  of  the  Phoenician  cities.  He  had  already 
conquered  country  after  country.  Cities  that  had  resisted 
him  had  been  plundered  and  destroyed  and  their  inhabitants 
butchered  with  almost  incredible  cruelties.  His  army  was  one 
of  the  most  perfect  fighting  machines  that  had  ever  been  or- 
ganized. Their  onslaught  was  considered  resistless.  The  on- 
coming of  an  Assyrian  army  is  thus  described:  "Behold  they 
shall  come  with  speed  swiftly;  none  shall  be  weary  nor  stumble 
among  them;  none  shall  slumber  or  sleep;  nor  shall  the  girdle 
of  their  loins  be  unloosed  nor  the  latchet  of  their  shoes  be  broken; 
whose  arrows  are  sharp  and  all  their  bows  are  bent,  their  horses' 
hoofs  shall  be  counted  like  flint,  and  their  wheels  like  a  whirl- 
wind; their  roaring  shall  be  like  a  lion,  they  shall  roar  like  young 
lions;  yea,  they  shall  roar  and  lay  hold  of  the  prey,  and  shall 
carry  it  away  safe  and  none  shall  deliver  it.  In  that  day  they 
shall  roar  against  him  like  the  roaring  of  the  sea;  and  if  one  look 
into  the  land,  behold  darkness  and  sorrow;  and  the  light  is  dark- 
ened in  the  heavens  thereof."^  The  king  of  Tyre  was  compelled 
to  choose  whether  he  would  cross  swords  with  this  world-con- 
queror or  submit  under  as  favorable  terms  as  could  be  secured. 

The  conqueror  himself  describes  his  advance  in  these  words: 

1  Goodspeed  (History  of  Babylonians  and  Assyrians,  p.  193)  suggests  the 
date  of  876  B.C.  with  an  interrogation.  Winckler  (History  of  Babylon  and 
Assyria,  Ed.  of  Craig,  p.  213)  gives  877  B.C.,  while  Rogers  (History  of 
Babylon  and  Assyria,  Vol.  II,  p.  63)  suggests  876  B.C.  but  later  (Cuneiform 
Parallels  to  the  Old  Testament,  p.  285)  feels  it  is  nearer  868  B.C. 

2  Isaiah,  V,  26-30. 



"At  that  time  I  marched  along  the  Lebanon  and  to  the  great 
sea  (Mediterranean)  of  the  land  of  the  Amurru  I  went  up. 
I  washed  my  weapons  and  made  offerings  to  the  gods.  The  trib- 
ute of  the  kings  from  the  side  of  the  sea,  from  the  lands  qf  Tyre 
and  Sidon,  and  Byblus  and  Makhallat  and  Maisa,  and  Kaisa, 
and  Amurru  and  Arvad,  which  lies  in  the  midst  of  the  sea; 
silver  and  gold  and  lead  and  bronze,  and  garments  of  bright 
colored  stuffs  and  cloth,  and  a  great  pagutu  and  a  small  pagutu, 
and  ushu-wood,  and  ukarinnu-wood,  and  teeth  of  a  dolphin,  a 
creature  of  the  sea,  I  received  as  their  tribute  and  they  embraced 
my  feet.  Mount  Amanus  I  climbed  and  beams  of  cedar,  cypress, 
juniper  and  pine  I  cut  down.  I  made  offerings  to  my  gods, 
A  stela  with  my  deeds  of  valor  I  made  and  set  up  therein."^ 
From  this  inscription  it  is  evident  that  the  Tyrians  chose  the 
easier  way  of  paying  tribute  to  the  conqueror. 

Now  it  must  be  remembered  that  the  Tyrians  were  first  of 
all  a  commercial  people.  Their  prosperity  depended  upon  peace, 
not  war.  Up  to  this  time  the  ranges  of  Lebanon  had  proved  a 
suflficient  protection  against  the  arms  of  the  warlike  nations, 
and  the  Phoenicians  had  been  allowed  to  develop  in  their  own 
way.  They  had  never  aspired  to  military  conquests.  Again 
and  again  in  later  times,  when  war  was  forced  upon  them,  they 
showed  that  they  were  not  without  the  courage  that  would 
have  made  worthy  warriors,  but  they  were  a  people  of  peace. 
If  there  are  times  when  discretion  is  the  better  part  of  valour, 
it  is  not  to  the  discredit  of  Tyre  that  she  acknowledged  the 
sovereignty  of  Assyria  and  brought  her  tribute  to  Asshurnazirpal. 

What  commercial  concessions  Tyre  secured,  and  what  pro- 
tection for  her  trade,  we  do  not  know,  for  we  have  only  the 
one-sided  account  of  the  conqueror;  but  for  a  century  and  a  half 
the  peaceful  relationship  continued.  The  Cuneiform  records 
of  this  period  make  mention  of  tribute  paid  by  Tyre  and  other 
Phoenician  cities.     Thus,  in  the  Annalistic  Fragments  of  Shal- 

1  Asshumazirpal's  Annals,  Column  III,  lines  84-89,  as  quoted  in  Rogers, 
Cuneiform  Parallels  to  the  Old  Testament,  p.  287;  Goodspeed,  History  of 
Babylonia  and  Assyria,  p.  193;  and  Schrader,  Cuneiform  Insciiptions  and 
the  Old  Testament  (ed.  Whitehouse,  London,  1888),  Vol.  II,  p.  144. 


manezer  II,  dated  about  842  B.C.,  we  read:  "At  that  time  I 
received  the  tribute  of  the  Tyrians  and  Sidonians,  and  Jehu 
of  the  land  of  Omri."^  Of  this  king's  last  great  expedition  to 
the  west,  about  839  B.C.,  we  read:  "In  the  twenty-first  year  of 
my  reign  I  crossed  the  Euphrates  for  the  twenty-first  time. 
I  marched  against  the  cities  of  Hazael  of  Damascus.  I  captured 
four  of  his  cities.  I  received  the  tribute  of  Tyrians,  Sidonians 
and  Byblians."^  We  have  no  evidence  that  Tyre  was  dis- 
contented with  this  situation.  It  is  quite  probable  that,  for  the 
most  part,  the  sway  of  Assyria  was  favorable  to  the  land  com- 
merce of  Tyre,  by  making  caravan  routes  more  safe.  Her 
wealth  increased  and  her  commerce  was  greatly  extended. 
Isaiah,  writing  at  the  close  of  this  period,  reveals  the  prosperity 
that  Tyre  had  been  enjoying:  "The  harvest  of  the  river  is  her 
revenue;  and  she  is  a  mart  of  all  nations.  .  .  .  Tyre,  the  crowning 
city,  whose  traffickers  are  the  honorable  of  the  earth. "^ 

It  was  in  this  period  that  a  situation  arose  in  Tyre  that  resulted 
in  the  founding  of  the  city  of  Carthage,*  and  hence  affected  pro- 
foundly the  later  history  of  all  the  nations  bordering  on  the 
Mediterranean.^  The  facts  regarding  the  founding  of  the  city 
of  Carthage,  like  those  of  many  of  the  other  cities  of  antiquity, 
are  hopelessly  interwoven  with  myths.^     We  have  a  very  brief 

1  Vid.  Rogers,  Cuneiform  Parallels  to  the  Old  Testament,  p.  304. 
^Vid.  ibid.,  p.  304,  and  Sayce:  Records  of  the  Past,  Old  Series,  Vol.  V, 
p.  35. 

» Isaiah,  XXIII,  3-8. 

*  826  B.C.,  01  814  B.C.  There  was  probably  a  colony,  or  at  least  a  trading 
post  at  the  site  of  Carthage  long  before  the  flight  of  Elissa.  Philistus  as 
quoted  by  Eusebius  (Chronicorum  Lib.  II,  803  years  after  Abraham.  Vid. 
Migne,  Patrologae,  Vol.  19,  p.  406)  says  that  the  city  was  founded  thirty 
years  before  the  fall  of  Troy,  while  Appian  (VIII,  1)  gives  the  date  fifty  years 
before  that  event.  Virgil  associates  Dido  with  Aeneas  in  a  way  that  would 
indicate  that  he  held  to  a  date  about  the  time  of  the  fall  of  Tioy,  i.  e.,  about 
1200  B.C.  The  early  settlement  was  evidently  fortified:  it  was  called  n")V3 
and  the  confusing  of  this  with  B^paa  gave  rise  to  Virgil's  story  of  the  ox-hide. 
Movers,  Die  Phonizier,  Vol.  II,  Book  II,  137,  argues  that  the  addition  built  by 
Elissa  and  her  followers  was  called  DKHn  mp  (New  Town)  in  contrast 
to  this  former  settlement.     But  vid.  p.  32  below. 

*  Vid.  Krall,  Tyrus  und  Sidon,  p.  66. 

«Vid.  Movers,  Die  Phonizier,  Vol.  I,  pp.  350-361;  Meltzer,  Geschichte 
der  Karthager,  Vol.  I,  pp.  90-141. 


statement  of  Menander,  preserved  by  Josephus/  from  Tyrian 
sources.  No  record  has  come  to  us  directly  from  Carthaginian 
historians.  The  best  that  have  survived  from  Latin  and  Greek 
sources  are  the  account  of  Virgil  in  the  Aeneid,  Book  I  with 
commentaries,  and  that  in  Justin,  XVIII,  4-5. 

Menander,  as  quoted  by  Josephus,  states  that  "  he  (Matgenus, 
\r\12)  lived  thirty-two  years,  and  reigned  nine  years.  Pyg- 
malion succeeded  him;  he  lived  fifty-six  years  and  reigned  forty- 
seven  years.  Now  in  the  seventh  year  of  his  reign  his  sister  fled 
away  from  him,  and  built  the  city  of  Carthage  in  Libya. "^ 
This  bald  statement,  devoid  of  details,  may  perhaps  be  accepted 
as  trustworthy. 

According  to  Justin,  when  the  king  died,  he  left  his  son  Pyg- 
malion and  his  daughter  Elissa^  as  joint  heirs.  But  the  people 
delivered  the  rulership  to  the  boy  Pygmalion.  Elissa  married 
her  uncle  Acerbas  (Sychaeus  of  Virgil,  7^^  1DD)/  priest  of 
Hercules,  whose  place  was  second  only  to  the  king.  This  man 
had  great  but  hidden  riches.  Through  fear  of  the  king  he  hid 
his  wealth  not  in  buildings  but  in  the  ground.  Pygmalion, 
moved  by  avarice,  slew  his  uncle. ^  Elissa  was  turned  against 
her  brother  for  a  long  time  because  of  the  crime,  but  at  length 
she  dissimulated  her  hatred  and  planned  secret  flight.  Certain 
princes  who  were  in  disfavor  with  the  king  had  entered  into 
league  with  her.  She  went  to  her  brother  with  craft  and  said 
that  she  wished  to  move  to  his  house.  Pygmalion  heard  her 
gladly,  for  he  thought  that  she  would  bring  the  gold  of  Acerbas 

1  Josephus,  Against  Apion,  I,  18. 

2  Ibid.,  I,  18. 

3  n^K  feminine  of  ^N  (?). 

*  Commemoration  of  Baal.  130  in  Phoen.  =  ^^T  in  Heb.  Cf .  n'  13T, 
Zechariah  I,  1  et  al. 

'  According  to  one  tradition,  Pygmalion  slew  Acerbas  before  the  altar  in 
the  temple  of  Melkart  (Virgil,  Aeneid,  Bk.  I)  while  another  tradition  reports 
that  he  invited  Acerbas  to  hunt  with  him  and  while  the  attendants  were 
pursuing  a  wild  boar,  he  slew  Acerbas  with  a  spear  and  threw  his  body  down 
a  precipice.  He  then  gave  out  that  Acerbas  had  fallen  to  his  death.  Virgil 
is  confused  by  the  conflicting  accounts,  for  while  he  states  that  Acerbas  was 
slain  before  the  altar  publicly,  he  has  the  fact  of  the  crime  revealed  to  Elissa 
in  a  dream,  as  though  the  deed  had  been  done  in  secret. 


with  her.  He  sent  servants  and  ships  for  the  moving.  The 
riches  were  secretly  concealed  on  board  the  ships,  but  out  at 
sea  the  servants  were  compelled  to  cast  overboard  bags  of  sand, 
which  they  were  led  to  believe  were  the  treasures,  while  she 
prayed  the  shade  of  her  husband  to  accept  the  offering  of  the 
wealth  that  had  caused  his  death.  The  servants  were  easily 
frightened  into  believing  that,  as  the  treasures  were  gone,  their 
only  safe  course  lay  in  flight.  They  were  joined » by  certain 
senators  and  priests  of  Hercules,  and  sought  a  home  in  exile.^ 

They  went  first  to  Cyprus  where  a  priest  of  Jupiter  with  his 
family  joined  them.  Eighty  virgins  who  had  come  down  to  the 
sea-shore  to  dedicate  themselves  to  Venus  before  marriage,  were 
seized  and  carried  away  to  be  the  wives  of  the  founders  of  the 
new  city.  Pygmalion  was  inclined  to  follow  with  a  hostile 
fleet,  but  was  dissuaded  by  his  mother,  who  was  moved  by 
prophetic  inspiration  to  see  that  the  new  city  was  to  be  "urbs 
toto  orbe  auspicatissima."^      Ehssa,  the  wanderer,  was  called 

Dido  (n"n^). 

An  additional  interesting  statement  concerning  the  founding 
of  Carthage  is  given  by  Philistus  as  quoted  by  Eusebius.^  He 
states  that  Carthage  was  founded  by  "^copo^  and  Kapxv^^^'- 
There  can  be  no  doubt  that  Sw/ao?  is  ^)i,  Tyre,  and  that  this 
is  testimony  of  the  part  that  Tyre  played  in  the  founding  of  the 
great  Libyan  city.  A  natural  inference  would  be  that  JS^ap^v^'^v 
refers  to  another  city  that  cooperated  with  Tyre  in  the  founding 
of  Carthage.     It  has  been  argued  by  Professor  Jastrow*  that 

^  The  evidence  shows  that  avarice  was  the  motive  of  the  crime  of  PygmaUon, 
and  the  unbroken  friendly  relations  between  Carthage  and  Tyre  may  be 
regarded  as  an  indication  that  the  flight  of  Elissa  and  her  followers  was  the 
result  of  the  personal  character  of  Pygmalion  rather  than  the  opposition  of 
any  important  faction  of  the  people  of  Tyre.  Yet  the  high  standing  of  those 
who  were  in  disfavor  with  the  king  and  fled  with  Elissa,  and  the  fact  that  the 
people  had  given  to  Pygmalion  the  sovereignty  left  to  him  and  Elissa  as 
joint  rulers,  suggest  a  civic  situation  in  which  the  people  and  the  crown  were 
arrayed  against  the  nobles  and  the  priestly  class. 

2  Justin,  XVIII,  4-5. 

'  Eusebius,  Chron.  Lib.  II,  year  803  after  Abraham.  Vid.  Migne,  Patrologae, 
Vol.  19,  p.  406;  Appian,  VIII,  1,  also  gives  Swpos  and  Kapx'/Scii' as  the  founders. 

*  Jastrow,  Journal  American  Oriental  Society,  Vol.  XV,  p.  Ixx. 


the  reference  is  probably  to  Kapxn^d^v  (Kittium)  in  Cyprus. 
This  city  is  spoken  of  in  the  Baal-Lebanon  inscription,^  in  the 
inscription  of  Esarhaddon,^  and  elsewhere.  It  was  evidently  an 
important  and  flourishing  city.  It  may  be  that  the  stop  made  by 
Elissa  and  her  followers  on  the  island  of  Cyprus  was  at  this  place, 
and  that  they  remained  here  until  the  danger  of  pursuit  made  it 
advisable  to  depart,  and  that  the  priest  of  Jupiter  and  others 
who  joined  the  enterprise  here  had  large  share  in  founding  the 
New  City,  which  was  given  the  name  of  their  home  town.^ 

These  legends  and  conjectures,  however,  are  not  to  be  accepted 
as  established  historic  facts.  The  date  and  details  as  to  the 
founding  of  Carthage  form  an  interesting  mystery  in  which 
very  little  is  certainly  known.  Meltzer,  after  a  careful  considera- 
tion of  all  known  materials  on  the  subject,  concludes  that  all 
that  we  may  be  sure  of  is  "  dass  Karthago  von  Tyrien,  iibrigens 
untern  ganzlich  unbekanten  Umstanden,  gegriindet  war,"  and 
at  a  date  quite  uncertain.'* 

We  come  to  a  new  light  in  the  history  of  Tyre,  with  the  coming 
of  Tiglathpilezer  III  to  the  Assyrian  throne  in  746  B.C.  He 
ruled  all  the  dependencies  of  Assyria  with  a  heavy  hand.  His 
immediate  predecessors  had  been  unable  to  enforce  their  sove- 
reignty in  the  west  and  collect  the  tribute  claimed.  Tiglath- 
pilezer III  was  a  warrior  and  a  statesman.  He  began  with 
ruthless  hand  to  establish  Assyrian  authority.  A  coalition  to 
refuse  tribute  and  resist  its  collection  by  force,  if  necessary,  was 
formed.  Tyre  joined  the  combination,  together  with  Judah, 
Israel,  Damascus,  Gebal  and  others  to  the  number  of  nineteen. 
The  confederation  was  formidable,  but  it  lacked  cohesion. 
Tiglathpilezer  III  marched  on  the  confederates  in  738  B.C. 
He  met  with  no  united  opposition.  One  by  one  the  cities  made 
peace  with  him.  When  the  campaign  was  over,  Tiglathpilezer 
carried  away  the  tribute  from  Kushtashpi  of  Kummukh,  Rezon 

1  Vid.  below,  p.  33  below. 

2  Vid.  Talbot,  Records  of  the  Past,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  107,  108. 

'  It  is  quite  possible  that  Carthage  had  its  name  "New  Town"  in  contrast 
with  the  mother  city,  Tyre.     But  see  footnote  on  p.  29  above. 
<  Meltzer,  Geschichte  der  Kathager,  Vol.  I,  p.  141. 


of  Damascus,  Menahem  of  Samaria,  Hiram  of  Tyre,  Sibitti'li  of 
Gebal,  Urikki  of  Que,  Pisiris  of  Carchemish,  Enilu  of  Hamath, 
Panammu  of  Sam'al,  Tarkhulara  of  Gurgum,  Shulumal  of 
Melid,  Dadilu  of  Kask,  Uassurme  of  Tabal,  Ushkhitti  of  Atun, 
Urballa  of  Tukhan,  Tukhammi  of  Ishtunda,  Urimmi  of  Khu- 
bishna,  and  from  Queen  Zabibi  of  Arabia.  Tiglathpilezer 
declares  that  he  annexed  the  nineteen  districts  and  appointed 
his  generals  as  rulers  over  them.^ 

Here  the  earliest  Phoenician  inscription,  the  Baal-Lebanon, 
becomes  available.^  It  is  engraved  upon  the  fragments  of  a 
bronze  bowl  dedicated  by  a  certain  "governor  of  Karth- 
hadasht,"  or  Karti-hadashti  (New  City,  i.  e.,  Kittium),  servant 
of  Hiram,  King  of  the  Sidonians,  to  Baal-Lebanon.  It  reads  as 
follows : 

b^'2b  ]n^  1^  DJiy  T^bD  Dnn  -in^;  niz^-innnp  pD  i. 

nt:^innnp pD  nc: ...  2. 

(1)  .  .  .  governor  of  Karth-hadasht,  servant  of  Hiram,  King 
of  the  Sidonians,  gave  this  to  Baal  of  Lebanon,  my  lord,  of 
choicest  bronze. 

(2)  .  ,  .  TB,  governor  of  Karth-hadasht. 

(3)  to  Baal  of  Lebanon,  my  lord.^ 

While  the  date  of  this  fragment  is  not  certain,  it  is  probable 
that  the  King  Hiram  of  the  inscription  is  this  Hiram  of  Tyre 
from  whom  Tiglathpilezer  took  tribute.     The  King  of  Tyre  was 

1  Rogers,  Cuneiform  Parallels  to  the  O.  T.,  p.  316.  In  the  tribute  lists 
of  734-732  B.C.  appear  the  kings  of  various  Phoenician  cities  and  this  refer- 
ence: "  My  general,  the  Rabshakeh,  to  Tyre  I  send.  Of  Mietenna  of  Tyre  150 
talents  of  gold.  ..."  Vid.  S.  A.  Strong  (Trans.),  Records  of  the  Past,  New 
Series,  Vol.  V,  p.  126. 

^  This  most  ancient  of  our  Phoenician  inscriptions  was  graven  on  a  bronze 
bowl  which  was  found  on  the  island  of  Cyprus  in  1872.  The  peasant  who 
found  the  bowl  broke  it  to  see  if  it  were  made  of  gold.  He  left  some  of  the 
fragments;  others  he  gave  to  his  children  for  playthings.  The  lost  fragments 
were  never  recovered.  Eight  fragments  fitted  together  give  us  the  above 
inscription.  Cooke,  Northern-Semitic  Inscriptions,  No.  11.  Corpus  Inscrip- 
tionum  Semiticarum,  I,  5. 


spoken  of  as  the  King  of  the  Sidonians^  and  this  inscription  gives 
us  the  interesting  information  that  the  authority  of  Tyre  ex- 
tended to  Cyprus  at  this  period.  In  the  closing  years  of  Tiglath- 
pilezer's  reign  Maten  was  king  of  Tyre.^ 

In  the  reign  of  Shalmanezer  IV  we  find  Tyre  still  enjoying 
semi-independence  under  King  Eluleus,  and  claiming  authority 
over  the  other  Phoenician  cities  and  the  Island  of  Cyprus.  The 
Cyprians  revolted,  but  Eluleus  sailed  to  their  island  and  reduced 
them  to  submission.  It  is  probable  that  the  revolt  of  Cyprus 
was  but  submission  to  Assyria.  The  Assyrian  king  sent  an 
army  against  Tyre.  He  overran  all  Phoenicia,  but  having  no 
means  for  attacking  the  island  city,  he  made  peace  and  with- 
drew. Doubtless  he  had  impressed  the  Phoenician  dependencies 
of  Tyre  by  his  military  measures,  and  they  had  seen  that  they 
were  powerless  to  resist  his  armies.  Sidon,  Palaetyrus,  and 
many  other  cities  delivered  themselves  into  his  hands.  Tyre 
refused  to  submit.  The  Assyrian  king  appeared  again  in 
Phoenicia.  The  other  Phoenician  cities  now  furnished  him  a 
fleet  of  sixty  ships  and  eight  hundred  men  to  row  them.  Tyre 
seems  to  have  been  taken  by  surprise.  But  twelve  ships  were 
available  with  which  to  oppose  the  large  hostile  fleet.  The 
Tyrians  sailed  boldly  into  battle,  scattered  the  ships  of  the 
enemy  and  took  five  hundred  men  prisoners.  Because  of  this 
victory  great  honor  came  to  the  people  of  Tyre.  Finding  the 
capture  of  Tyre  impossible,  the  king  withdrew,  leaving  troops  to 
besiege  the  city  by  cutting  off  the  water  supply.  The  city, 
though  distressed,  was  not  conquered.  The  people  drank  only 
such  brackish  water  as  they  could  obtain  from  the  wells  they 
dug,  or  the  rain-water  which  they  collected  in  cisterns.  At 
the  end  of  five  years,  the  siege  was  given  up,  troubles  elsewhere 
requiring  the  Assyrian  forces.^ 

1  Vid.  p.  25,  note  7  above. 

*Vid.  p.  33,  note  1  above. 

»Vid.  Menander  as  quoted  by  Josephus,  Antiquities,  IX,  14,  Sect.  2. 
The  accuracy  of  this  account  preserved  by  Josephus  is  open  to  serious  question. 
Rogers  thinks  that  this  siege  may  have  occurred  under  Sennacherib  (History 
of  Babylonia  and  Assyria,  Vol.  II,  p.  146) .  Max  Mtiller  considers  it  a  confusion 
of  several  Assyrian  attacks  (Jewish  Encyclopedia,  s.  v.  Tyre).  Vid.  also 
Winckler:  Altorientalische  Forschungen,  Zweite  Reihe,  I,  p.  65. 


King  Eluleus  reigned  thirty-six  years (?),  and-  it  appears  that 
after  Shalmanezer's  unsuccessful  attempt  to  crush  him,  he  was 
unmolested  by  the  Assyrian  forces  for  about  twenty  years. 
During  this  period  Tyre  regained  her  ascendency  over  a  large 
part  of  the  Phoenician  territory,  including  Sidon,  Sarepta, 
Ecdippa,  Acco,  and  other  cities.  Sargon,  who  held  the  scepter 
of  Assyria  from  721  to  705  B.C.,  turned  all  his  marvelous  powers 
elsewhere.  In  703  B.C.  a  league  to  resist  Assyria  was  formed  in 
the  west,  under  King  Hezekiah  of  Judah.  The  league  included 
Ammon,  Moab,  Edom,  and  the  cities  of  Phoenicia.  Padi,  King 
of  Ekron,  who  was  loyal  to  Assyria,  was  captured  and  delivered 
to  King  Hezekiah.  Sennacherib  (704-682  B.C.),  son  and 
successor  of  Sargon,  in  the  year  701  B.C.  appeared  with  a  large 
army  on  the  coast  of  the  Mediterranean  and  received  the  sub- 
mission of  the  Phoenician  cities,  except  Tyre.  Let  Sennacherib 
himself  tell  the  story : 

"In  my  third  campaign  I  went  to  the  land  of  Khatti:  the  fear  of  the 
splendor  of  my  sovereignty  overcame  Lull  (Eluleus),  the  King  of  the 
city  of  Sidon,  and  he  fled  to  the  sea,  and  I  took  his  territory.  Greater 
Sidon  and  Lesser  Sidon,  and  Bit-Zith,  and  Seriptu  (Sarepta),  and  Mak- 
hallibi,  and  Ushu,^  and  Akzibi  (Ecdippa),  and  Akku  (Acco),  his  strong 
cities  and  his  fortresses,  his  storehouses  of  food  and  drink,  his  strongholds 
were  vanquished  by  the  might  of  the  arms  of  Ashur  my  lord,  and  I  placed 
them  in  subjection  at  my  feet.  1  set  Tuba'lu  (Ethbaal)  upon  the  throne 
of  sovereignty  over  them,  and  laid  upon  him  a  fixed  amount  of  tribute 
which  was  to  be  paid  yearly  to  my  lordship.  Menahem  of  Samaria, 
Tuba'lu  of  Sidon  .  .  .  brought  me  rich  gifts  and  heavy  loads  of  their 
possessions,  and  kissed  my  feet.' 

The  omission  of  all  reference  to  Tyre  is  suggestive,  however  the 
Assyrian  is  not  giving  an  account  of  his  failures,  but  of  his 
successes.  It  would  seem  that  when  Eluleus  found  that  he 
could  not  defend  his  continental  possessions,  he  withdrew  to 
his  island  capital.^     Then,   when  Sennacherib  found  that  he 

1  Probably  Palaetyrus.     Vid.  Winckler,  Geschichte  Isr.,  I,  p.  201. 

2  Taylor  Cylinder,  Translation  of  E.  Wallace  Budge,  History  of  Egypt,  Vol. 
VI,  p.  136. 

3  Vid.  Rogers,  Records  of  the  Past,  N.  S.,  Vol.  VI,  p.  88,  and  Cuneiform 
Parallels,  p.  340.     Vid.  also  G.  Smith,  History  of  Sennacherib,   p.  54,  for 


could  not  crush  Eluleus,  he  made  Sidon  the  capital  of  Phoenicia, 
deposed  Eluleus,  whom  he  calls  "King  of  Sidon,"  and  appointed 
as  governor  the  native  prince  Tuba'lu  or  Ethbaal.  This  political 
move  would  placate  Sidon  while  stripping  Tyre  of  much  of  her 
power.  The  account  does  not  warrant  the  conclusion  that 
Eluleus  was  crushed  or  that  Tyre  was  taken,  though  the  league 
for  resistance  was  shattered,  and  Tyre  seems  to  have  made  at 
least  a  nominal  submission.^ 

There  is  no  reason  to  believe  that  Tuba'lu  proved  an  unfaith- 
ful vassal  of  his  foreign  master. 

Esarhaddon  (680-668  B.C.)  came  to  the  throne  of  Assyria  in 
680  B.C.  The  yoke  of  Assyria  proved  so  galling  that  subject 
provinces  frequently  chose  the  unsettled  period  when  a  new 
king  was  establishing  himself  upon  the  throne,  as  a  favorable 
opportunity  to  revolt.  Abi-Milkut,  who  had  probably  suc- 
ceeded Ethbaal,  was  on  the  throne  of  Sidon.  He  formed  an 
alliance  with  Sanduarri,  King  of  Kundu  and  Sizu,  and  declared 
independence.  Esarhaddon  appeared  at  the  head  of  an  Assyrian 
army,  and  wrought  vengeance  on  the  city  of  Sidon.  Abi-Milkut 
fled  to  the  open  sea  for  safety.  Esarhaddon  says :  "  Abi-Milkut, 
King  of  Sidon,  from  the  face  of  my  soldiers  in  the  midst  of  the 
sea  had  fled:  like  a  fish  from  the  midst  of  the  sea  I  caught  him, 
and  cut  off  his  head."^  Sanduarri  suffered  the  same  fate;  and 
the  two  heads  were  carried  to  Nineveh  to  be  hung  around  the 
necks  of  certain  of  their  great  men  taken  as  captives,  and  who 
with  musicians  and  singers,  were  to  grace  the  triumph  of  the 

It  cannot  be  definitely  settled  whether  the  attack  upon  Tyre 
began  during  the  siege  of  Sidon,  or  whether  it  was  commenced 
during  the  subsequent  march  which  the  Assyrian  armies  made 

another  account  in  the  so-called  Bull  Inscriptions  which  states  that  Eluleus 
fled  to  Cyprus. 

1  Goodspeed,  History  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria,  p.  269;  Rogers,  Cuneiform 
Parallels,  pp.  334-335;  History  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria,  pp.  296-297;  Winckler, 
History  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria,  pp.  256-257. 

^  Cf.  Rogers,  Cuneiform  Parallels,  pp.  353-354. 

'  Vid.  Goodspeed,  History  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria,  p.  294;  Rogers, 
Cuneiform  Parallels,  p.  350.     Sizu  (Sazu)  =Palaetyrus. — Vid.  p.  4  above. 


upon  Egypt. ^  At  least  we  know  that  it  came  within  a  short 
time,  and  the  reason  we  can  easily  find  in  the  need  of  immense 
treasure  which  Esarhaddon  had  to  carry  out  his  building  schemes. 
The  commerce  of  Tyre  had  brought  the  wealth  of  the  nations  to 
her.  There  were  the  great  treasure  houses.  Esarhaddon  would 
naturally  turn  his  attention  to  Tyre  as  soon  as  possible.  Baal 
was  upon  the  throne,  probably  having  succeeded  Eluleus.  The 
Tyrians  could  afford  to  purchase  peace  at  a  heavy  price  to  pre- 
serve their  commercial  supremacy,  but  they  were  wise  enough 
to  know  that  no  price  would  satisfy  Esarhaddon  while  they 
retained  their  possessions  and  any  measure  of  liberty.  They 
therefore  prepared  for  war.  The  Assyrian  king  laid  siege  to 
their  city,  but  this  was  a  work  very  different  from  that  of  be- 
sieging Sidon.  Tyre  was  much  better  protected  by  her  natural 
barriers.  The  Assyrian  could  occupy  the  mainland;  he  could 
capture  Palaetyrus  and  cut  off  the  city's  usual  water  supply; 
he  could  attempt  to  fight  the  island  dwellers  with  starvation. 
But  the  half  mile  of  water  in  the  channel  was  an  effective  barrier 
against  assault,  and  the  Assyrian  army  could  not  shut  Tyre  in 
from  the  open  sea.  And  while  the  sea  was  open.  Tyre,  while 
harassed,  could  not  be  starved  into  submission.  A  long  siege 
was  successfully  withstood  and  finally  Esarhaddon  withdrew 
without  having  accomplished  his  purpose.  "  It  is  true  that  upon 
one  of  his  largest  and  most  impressive  monuments  he  pictures 

1  Rogers,  in  the  History  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria,  holds  that  the  siege  of 
Tyre  probably  began  while  the  siege  of  Sidon  was  in  progress.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  authority  of  Winckler  and  Goodspeed  is  given  to  the  view  that  the 
siege  of  Tyre  was  begun  as  Esarhaddon  marched  south  to  attack  the  Egyptians. 
The  account  of  the  siege  of  Sidon  is  given  in  Prism  A,  Column  1,  of  the  records 
of  this  king,  and  there  is  there  no  mention  made  of  Tyre.  But  in  the  tablet 
giving  the  account  of  the  campaign  against  Egypt,  which  Rogers  dates  670 
B.C.,  we  read:  "In  my  tenth  campaign  (Ashur  gave  me  confidence)  and  I 
marched  my  troops  to  Magan  and  Melukhkha,  and  turned  my  face  to  the 
land  of  .  .  .  which  in  the  tongue  of  the  people  of  Kush  and  Egypt  is  called. 
...  In  the  course  of  my  campaign  I  erected  siege  works  against  Ba'al,  King 
of  Tyre,  who  had  trusted  in  Tarqu,  King  of  Kush,  his  friend,  and  had  shaken 
off  the  yoke  of  Ashur,  my  lord,  and  had  expressed  defiance  of  me,  I  cut  off 
from  him  food  and  drink,  the  means  of  life."  The  account  then  proceeds  with 
the  campaign  against  Tarqu.  Rogers,  Cuneiform  Parallels  to  the  Old 
Testament,  pp.  357-358. 


Baal  of  Tyre  kneeling  before  his  august  majesty  who  holds  him 
with  a  ring  through  his  lips.  On  the  inscription,  however,  there 
is  not  one  word  about  the  fall  of  Tyre,  nor  elsewhere  in  any  of 
Esarh addon's  records  is  there  any  claim  that  Tyre  had  been 
taken."^  The  picture  on  the  Zinjirli  stela  is,  therefore,  a 
representation  of  Esarhaddon's  vanity  rather  than  that  of  the 
real  outcome  of  the  siege  of  Tyre. 

Tyre  maintained  her  independence  until  the  death  of  Esar- 
haddon,  B.C.  668.  Asshurbanipal,  his  son,  was  his  successor 
on  the  throne  of  Assyria.  In  his  first  year  he  marched  against 
Egypt.  On  his  way  he  received  the  submission  of  twenty-two 
kings  who  came  and  kissed  his  feet.  Among  these  was  Baal 
of  Tyre.^  Asshurbanipal  went  into  Egypt,  completely  defeated 
the  Egyptian  forces  and  reinstated  the  governors  appointed  by 
Esarhaddon,  who  had  fled  before  Tirhakah.  Shortly  after  this 
expedition  against  Egypt,  some  of  these  governors  began  to 
plot  against  the  Assyrian  authority.  A  second  expedition  into 
Egypt  completely  crushed  the  movement.  It  is  probable  that 
Baal  was  accused  of  having  some  part  in  this  plot  and  so  incurred 
the  wrath  of  Asshurbanipal.  His  third  campaign  was  directed 
against  Tyre,  664  B.C.     He  says: 

"In  my  third  expedition  against  Baal,  King  of  Tyre,  I  .  .  .  went; 
who  my  royal  will  disregarded  and  did  not  hear  the  words  of  my  lips; 
towers  round  him  I  raised;  on  sea  and  land  his  roads  I  took;  their  spirits 
I  humbled  and  caused  to  melt  away;  to  my  yoke  I  made  them  submissive. 
The  daughter  proceeding  from  his  body  and  the  daughters  of  his  brothers 
for  concubines  he  brought  to  my  presence.  Yahimelek,  his  son,  the 
glory  of  the  country,  of  unsurpassed  renown,  at  once  he  sent  forward, 
to  make  obeisance  to  me.  His  daughter  and  the  daughters  of  his  brothers 
with  their  great  dowries  I  received.  Favour  I  granted  him,  and  the  son 
proceeding  from  his  body  I  restored  and  gave  him."» 

Baal  was  conquered  and  Tyre  was  made  submissive  to 
Assyria.  But  neither  the  deposing  of  her  king  nor  the  loss  of 
political  liberty  crushed  the  commerce  of  Tyre.     And  even  the 

1  Rogers,  History  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria,  Vol.  II,  p.  227. 

2  G.  Smith,  Records  of  the  Past,  O.  S.,  Vol.  I,  pp.  62,  63. 
» George  Smith,  Records  of  the  Past,  O.  S.,  Vol.  I,  p.  68. 


hard  conditions  of  submission  were  more  favorable  for  trade 
than  the  unsettled  conditions  of  struggle.  While  armies  of 
defence  were  to  be  maintained  and  hostile  armies  were  ravaging 
the  land,  and  caravans  must  do  business  in  hostile  territory  in 
order  to  maintain  the  vast  trade  of  the  east,  and  merchandise 
could  scarcely  be  obtained  for  export  by  sea — while  these  con- 
ditions of  war  existed,  commerce  mus|:  have  been  very  greatly 
injured.  Submission  to  Assyria  freed  Tyre  from  military 
expenditure,  insured  the  country  against  invasion  and  gave 
settled  conditions  and  the  protection  of  the  "King  of  Asia"  for 
the  development  of  trade.  To  a  commercial  people  these 
advantages  more  than  balanced  their  cost  in  tribute  and  the  loss 
of  political  independence. 

About  the  middle  of  the  seventh  century  B.C.  the  Assyrian 
monarchy  began  to  decline.  The  Tyrians  must  have  known 
through  their  caravan  traders  that  the  Assyrian  kingdom  was 
tottering,  and  that  the  Median  monarchy  was  gaining  strength; 
that  many  provinces  were  withholding  tribute  and  that  there 
was  no  Assyrian  sword  to  make  collections  any  longer.  As 
Assyria's  cruelty  had  filled  the  world  with  hatred  of  her,  so  now 
her  enervating  luxury  had  filled  the  minds  of  distant  peoples 
with  anticipations  of  her  fall.  The  Hebrew  prophet  Zephaniah 
wrote : 

"And  he  will  stretch  out  his  hand  against  the  north  and  destroy 
Assyria;  and  he  will  make  Nineveh  a  desolation,  and  dry  like  a  wilderness. 
And  flocks  shall  lie  down  in  the  midst  of  her,  all  the  beasts  of  the  nations; 
both  the  cormorant  and  the  bittern  shall  lodge  in  the  upper  lintels  of  it; 
their  voice  shall  sing  in  the  windows;  desolation  shall  be  in  the  thresholds; 
for  he  shall  uncover  the  cedar  work.  This  is  the  rejoicing  city  that  dwelt 
carelessly,  that  said  in  her  heart,  I  am,  and  there  is  none  beside  me;  how 
is  she  become  a  desolation,  a  place  for  beasts  to  lie  down  in!  every  one  that 
passeth  by  her  shall  hiss,  and  wag  his  hand."^ 

With  the  relaxing  of  the  Assyrian  control,  provinces  found  it 
necessary  to  protect  themselves  in  time  of  danger.  Independence 
of  Assyria  probably  became  a  fact  at  Tyre  before  it  was  pro- 
claimed.    It  is  certain  that  the  merchant  city  would  not  pay 

1  Zephaniah,  II,  13-15. 


tribute  any  longer  than  she  felt  compelled  to  do  so.  The  exact 
date  when  Tyre  threw  off  the  allegiance  to  Assyria  is  not  known; 
it  was  probably  about  630  B.C.  The  period  of  independence 
lasted  until  about  585  B.C.,  and  in  this  period  the  city  rose  to 
the  summit  of  her  greatness.  Her  commerce  extended  to  the 
ends  of  the  earth.  A  remarkable  account  of  her  conditions  and 
activities  is  given  by  Ezekiel,  who  lived  in  this  period.     He  says : 

"The  word  of  Jehovah  came  again  unto  me,  saying,  And  thou,  son  of 
man,  take  up  a  lamentation  over  Tyre;  and  say  unto  T3'^re,  O  thou  that 
dwellest  at  the  entry  of  the  sea,  and  art  the  merchant  of  the  peoples  unto 
many  isles,  thus  saith  the  Lord  Jehovah;  Thou,  0  Tyre,  hast  said,  I  am 
perfect  in  beauty.  Thy  borders  are  in  the  heart  of  the  seas;  thy  builders 
have  perfected  thy  beauty.  They  have  made  all  thy  planks  of  fir-trees 
from  Senir;  they  have  taken  a  cedar  from  Lebanon  to  make  a  mast  for 
thee.  Of  the  oaks  of  Bashan  have  they  made  thine  oars;  they  have  made 
thy  benches  of  ivory  inlaid  in  boxwood  from  the  isles  of  Kittim.  Of 
fine  linen  with  broidered  work  from  Egypt  was  thy  sail,  that  it  might 
be  to  thee  for  an  ensign;  blue  and  purple  from  the  isles  of  Elishah  was 
thine  awning.  The  inhabitants  of  Sidon  and  Arvad  were  thy  rowers; 
thy  wise  men,  0  Tyre,  were  in  thee,  they  were  thy  pilots.  The  old  men 
of  Gebal  and  the  wise  men  thereof  were  in  thee,  thy  calkers;  all  the  ships 
of  the  sea  with  their  mariners  were  in  thee  to  deal  in  thy  merchandise. 
Persia  and  Lud  and  Put  were  in  thine  army,  thy  men  of  war;  they  hanged 
the  shield  and  helmet  in  thee;  they  set  forth  thy  comliness.  The  men 
of  Arvad  with  thine  army  were  upon  thy  walls  round  about,  and  valorous 
men  were  in  thy  towers;  they  hanged  their  shields  upon  thy  walls  round 
about:  they  have  perfected  thy  beauty. 

"Tarshish  was  thy  merchant  by  reason  of  the  multitude  of  all  kinds  of 
riches;  with  silver,  iron,  tin,  and  lead  they  traded  for  thy  wares.  Javan, 
Tubal  and  Meshech  were  thy  traffickers;  they  traded  the  persons  of 
men  and  vessels  of  brass  for  thy  merchandise.  They  of  the  house  of 
Togarmath  traded  for  thy  wares  with  horses  and  warhorses  and  mules. 
The  men  of  Dedan  were  thy  traffickers;  many  isles  were  the  mart  of  thy 
hand;  they  brought  thee  in  exchange  horns  of  ivory  and  ebony.  Syria 
was  thy  merchant  by  reason  of  the  multitude  of  thy  handy  works;  they 
traded  for  thy  wares  with  emeralds,  purple,  and  broidered  work,  and  fine 
linen,  and  coral,  and  rubies.  Judah,  and  the  land  of  Israel,  were  thy 
traffickers:  they  traded  for  thy  merchandise  wheat  of  Minnith,  and  pan- 
nag,  and  honey,  and  oil  and  balm.  Damascus  was  thy  merchant  for  the 
multitude  of  thy  handy  works,  by  reason  of  the  multitude  of  all  kinds  of 
riches,  with  the  wines  of  Helbon  and  white  wool.    Vedan  and  Javan 


traded  with  yarn  for  thy  wares;  bright  iron,  cassia  and  calamus  were 
among  thy  merchandise.  Dedan  was  thy  trafficker  in  precious  cloths 
for  riding.  Arabia,  and  all  the  princes  of  Kedar,  they  were  the  merchants 
of  thy  hand;  in  lambs,  and  rams  and  goats,  in  these  were  they  thy  mer- 
chants. The  traffickers  of  Sheba  and  Raamah,  they  were  thy  traffickers; 
they  traded  for  thy  wares  with  the  chief  of  all  spices,  and  with  all  precious 
stones,  and  with  gold.  Haran,  and  Canneh  and  Eden,  the  traffickers  of 
Sheba,  Asshur  and  Chilmad  were  thy  traffickers.  These  were  thy  traf- 
fickers in  choice  wares,  in  wrappings  of  blue  and  broidered  work,  and 
with  chests  of  rich  apparel,  bound  with  cords  and  made  with  cedar,  among 
thy  merchandise.  The  ships  of  Tarshish  were  thy  caravans  for  thy 
merchandise;  and  thou  wast  replenished  and  made  very  glorious  in  the 
heart  of  the  seas. 

"Thy  rowers  have  brought  thee  into  great  waters;  the  east  wind  hath 
broken  thee  in  the  heart  of  the  seas.  Thy  riches,  and  wares,  thy  mer- 
chandise, thy  mariners  and  thy  pilots,  thy  calkers,  and  the  dealers  in 
thy  merchandise,  and  all  thy  men  of  war  that  are  in  thee,  with  all  thy 
company  which  is  in  the  midst  of  thee,  shall  fall  into  the  heart  of  the  seas 
in  the  day  of  thy  ruin.  At  the  sound  of  the  cry  of  thy  pilots  the  suburbs 
shall  shake.  And  all  that  handle  the  oar,  the  mariners,  and  all  the  pilots 
of  the  sea,  shall  come  down  from  their  ships;  they  shall  stand  upon  the 
land,  and  shall  cause  their  voice  to  be  heard  over  thee,  and  shall  cry 
bitterly,  and  shall  cast  up  dust  upon  their  heads;  they  shall  wallow 
themselves  in  the  ashes;  and  they  shall  make  themselves  bald  for  thee, 
and  gird  them  with  sackcloth,  and  they  shall  weep  for  thee  in  bitterness 
of  soul  in  bitter  mourning.  And  in  their  waiUng  they  shall  take  up  a 
lamentation  over  thee,  and  lament  over  thee,  saying.  Who  is  there  like 
Tyre,  like  her  that  is  brought  to  silence  in  the  midst  of  the  sea?  With 
thy  wares  sent  forth  out  of  the  seas,  thou  filledst  many  peoples;  thou 
didst  enrich  the  kings  of  the  earth  with  the  multitude  of  thy  riches  and 
of  thy  merchandise.  In  the  time  that  thou  wast  broken  by  the  seas  in 
the  depths  of  the  waters,  thy  merchandise  and  all  of  thy  company  did  fail 
in  the  midst  of  thee.  All  the  inhabitants  of  the  isles  are  astonished  at 
thee,  and  their  kings  are  horribly  afraid;  they  are  troubled  in  their 
countenance.  The  merchants  among  the  peoples  hiss  at  thee;  thou  art 
become  a  terror,  and  thou  shalt  nevermore  have  any  being."^ 

Tyre  was  the  cosmopolitan  city  of  the  world,  and  the  Hebrew 
prophet  saw  her  as  a  treasure-ship  soon  to  be  wrecked  in  storms. 
1  Ezekiel,  XXVII. 


tyke's   resistance   to   BABYLON 

Tyre  threw  off  the  Assyrian  yoke  in  about  630  B.C.  For 
many  centuries  Syria  was  the  buffer  territory  between  the 
peoples  of  the  Euphrates  and  those  of  the  Nile.  Now  that 
Assyria's  power  was  broken,  Egypt  coveted  possession  of  the 
territory.  Necho  II,  son  of  Psamatik  I,  shortly  after  ascending 
the  throne  of  Egypt,  made  an  expedition  into  Syria  in  608  B.C. 
and  brought  the  whole  territory  as  far  east  as  Carchemish  on 
the  Euphrates,  under  Egyptian  control.  Doubtless  Tyre 
became  tributary,  retaining  her  autonomy  and  securing  con- 
ditions favorable  to  her  trade.  But  in  605  B.C.,  Nabopolassar, 
King  of  Babylon,  having  overthrown  Assyria,  sent  his  son 
Nebuchadrezzar,  to  recover  from  Egypt  the  territory  over 
which  Assyria  had  ruled.  He  met  Necho  at  Carchemish,  and  a 
great  battle  was  fought,^  the  Egyptians  being  defeated  and  put 
to  rout.  Nebuchadrezzar  marched  through  Syria  and  received 
the  submission  of  the  whole  country.  His  progress  was  a  tri- 
umphal march.  Tyre,^  with  the  other  Phoenician  cities,  ac- 
knowledged the  sovereignty  of  Babylon,  retaining  her  own 
ruler  and  enjoying  semi-independence  under  tribute.  Nebuchad- 
rezzar had  progressed  to  the  very  borders  of  Egypt  when  news 
of  his  father's  death  called  him  to  hasten  back  to  Babylon  with 
all  possible  speed. 

Although  all  Syria  had  acknowledged  submission  to  the  new 
Babylonian  kingdom,  order  had  not  been  restored,  and  con- 
fidence in  Babylonian  supremacy  in  that  territory,  over  Egypt, 
had  not  been  established.     The  unsettled  political  conditions, 

1  Vid.  Jer.,  XLVI,  and  II  Kings,  XXIV,  1. 

^  Jeremiah's  allusion  (XXV,  22)  in  604  B.C.,  to  the  approaching  downfall 
of  the  kings  of  Tyre  and  Sidon  and  the  coastland  beyond  the  sea,  i.  e.,  Phoenic- 
ian settlements  in  the  Mediterranean,  seems  to  imply  that  the  Phoenician 
cities  recovered  some  measure  of  independence. 



and  petty  warfares  between  tribes  and  peoples  were  extremely 
depressive  for  Tyre's  land  commerce  upon  which  her  trade  by 
sea  so  largely  depended.  And  where  Babylonian  ascendency 
was  fully  established,  much  of  the  trade  that  had  belonged  to 
Tyre  in  the  immediate  past  was  now  falling  to  Babylon.  Jeru- 
salem under  Jehoiakim  raised  the  standard  of  revolt  and  suffered 
severe  punishment  at  the  hand  of  Nebuchadrezzar,  B.C.  597.^ 
The  encroachment  of  Babylonia  meant  the  loss  of  liberty,  and 
seemed  to  mean  the  loss  of  prosperity  for  Tyre,  unless  it  could 
be  resisted. 

In  this  situation  Egypt  offered  help.  Pharaoh-Hophra 
(Apries)  came  to  the  Egyptian  throne  in  589  B.C.  and  was  eager 
to  regain  control  in  the  affairs  of  Syria  and  Palestine.  The 
frequent  policy  of  Egypt  under  such  circumstances  was  to  incite 
revolt  in  this  border  territory.  A  messenger  from  the  king  of 
Tyre  met  with  messengers  from  the  kings  of  Sidon,  Edom, 
Moab,  and  Ammon  at  Jerusalem,  to  persuade  Zedekiah^  to  join 
in  the  united  revolt.  To  these  messengers  the  prophet  Jeremiah 
gave  a  message  which,^  if  heeded,  would  have  saved  Tyre  from 
one  of  the  greatest  calamities  of  her  history.  It  was  a  message 
of  submission,  showing  the  folly  and  inevitable  disaster  of  revolt. 
But  Egypt  could  be  counted  on ;  the  coalition  looked  very  strong. 
It  appealed  to  a  blind  patriotism  which  finally  over-rode  the 
sane  councils  of  Jeremiah  and  those  who  stood  with  him.  The 
revolt  was  proclaimed.  Nebuchadrezzar,  at  the  head  of  a 
large  army,  advanced  as  far  as  Riblah  on  the  Orontes.  A  divi- 
sion of  the  army  was  sent  against  Jerusalem  and  the  city  be- 
sieged.^ Hophra,  with  an  Egyptian  army,  made  a  demon- 
stration against  the  Assyrians  that  necessitated  a  temporary 
lifting  of  the  siege,  but  hope  soon  fled,  for  the  Egyptians  with- 

1 II  Kings,  XXIV,  1-4. 

2  Read  Zedekiah  for  Jehoiakim  in  Jer.,  XXVII,  3,  12,  or  omit  verse  1, 
following  the  LXX. 
» Jeremiah,  XXVII. 
*  II  Kings,  XXIV,  10. 
'  Jeremiah,  XXXVII,  7. 


Josephus^  says  that  the  Egyptian  army  under  Hophra  was 
defeated  by  the  Babylonians,  but  Jeremiah,  who  seems  to  be 
his  authority,  does  not  speak  of  any  battle.  Diodorus  says  of 
Hophra:  "He  invaded  with  mighty  force  Cyprus  and  Phoenicia, 
and  took  Sidon  by  storm;  and  through  fear  and  terror  of  him 
brought  other  cities  of  Phoenicia  into  subjection.  And  having 
routed  the  Cyprians  and  Phoenicians  in  a  great  sea  fight,  he 
returned  into  Egypt  loaded  with  the  spoils  of  his  enemies."^ 
And  Herodotus  says  of  him:  "He  made  war  on  Sidon  and  fought 
with  the  people  of  Tyre  by  the  sea."^ 

We  must  remember  that  the  military  world  powers  were 
Babylon  and  Egypt,  and  that  they  looked  upon  the  smaller 
states  as  the  lawful  prizes  of  their  contests.  While  the  Egyp- 
tian army  was  occupied  elsewhere,  Jerusalem  was  reinvested  and 
the  siege  pressed  with  all  possible  vigor.  The  city  fell  in  586 
B.C.^  Nebuchadrezzar  now  turned  to  the  task  of  taking  Tyre. 
Ethbaal  H  was  then  king  of  the  city;  he  prepared  for  war.  The 
following  is  Ezekiel's  prediction  of  the  siege,  in  which  Tyre  for 
thirteen  years,  585-572  B.C.,^  withstood  the  force  of  Babylonian 

"Behold  I  will  bring  upon  Tyre  Nebuchadrezzar  King  of  Babylon, 
king  of  kings,  from  the  north,  with  horses,  and  with  chariots,  and  with 
horsemen,  and  with  a  company,  and  with  much  people.  He  shall  slay 
with  the  sword  thy  daughters  in  the  field;  and  he  shall  make  forts  against 
thee,  and  cast  up  a  mound  against  thee,  and  raise  up  the  buckler  against 
thee.  And  he  shall  set  his  battering  engines  against  thy  walls,  and  with 
his  axes  he  shall  break  down  thy  towers.  By  reason  of  the  abundance  of 
his  horses  their  dust  shall  cover  thee;  thy  walls  shall  shake  at  the  noise 

1  Antiquities,  X,  7  and  3. 

2  Diodorus,  I,  69. 

^  Herodotus,  II,  161. 

4 II  Kings,  XXIV,  10-20. 

^  Josephus,  Against  Apion,  I,  21,  says:  "On  the  7th  year  of  the  reign 
of  Nebuchadrezzar  he  began  to  besiege  TjTe,"  but  this  clearly  is  wrong. 
The  additions  of  Josephus  show  that  we  ought  to  read  the  20th  for  the  7th. 
Jer.,  XXVII,  indicates  that  the  siege  of  Tyre  had  not  begun  in  the  first  year 
of  the  reign  of  Zedekiah;  while  Ezekiel,  XXVI,  clearly  shows  that  Tyre  had 
not  yet  fallen  in  the  eleventh  year  of  the  Captivity.  Vid.  Kenrick,  Phoenicia, 
p.  386,  and  Hengstenberg,  De  Rebus  Tyriorum,  pp.  38-42. 


of  the  horsemen  and  of  the  wagons  and  of  the  chariots,  when  he  shall  enter 
into  thy  gates  as  men  entering  into  a  city  where  a  breach  is  made.  With 
the  hoofs  of  his  horses  shall  he  tread  down  all  thy  streets:  he  shall  slay 
thy  people  with  the  sword,  and  the  pillars  of  thy  strength  shall  go  down 
to  the  ground.  And  they  shall  make  a  spoil  of  thy  riches  and  a  prey 
of  thy  merchandise;  and  they  shall  lay  thy  stones  and  thy  timber  and 
thy  dust  in  the  midst  of  the  waters.  And  I  will  cause  the  noise  of  thy 
songs  to  cease  and  the  sound  of  thy  harps  shall  be  no  more  heard.  And 
I  will  make  thee  a  bare  rock;  and  thou  shalt  be  a  place  for  the  spreading 
of  nets:  thou  shalt  be  built  no  more."^  "Thy  riches  and  thy  wares, 
thy  merchandise,  and  thy  mariners,  and  thy  pilots,  calkers,  and  the 
dealers  in  thy  merchandise,  and  all  thy  men  of  war  that  are  in  thee,  and 
all  thy  company  that  is  in  the  midst  of  thee,  shall  fall  into  the  heart  of  the 
seas  in  the  day  of  thy  ruin."^ 

A  large  part  of  this  description  must  have  related  to  Mainland 

Means  effective  on  the  mainland  could  not  be  employed 
against  the  city  in  the  sea.  Jerome,  almost  a  thousand  years 
later,  suggests^  that  Nebuchadrezzar  may  have  constructed  a 
mole  from  the  mainland  to  the  island  in  order  to  attack  the  city. 
But  if  such  a  mole  had  been  constructed,  it  would  have  grown 
with  the  washup  of  the  sands,  as  Alexander's  mole  has  done.  It 
certainly  would  have  been  no  great  task  for  Alexander  to  con- 
struct his  mole.  These  facts,  with  the  silence  of  a  thousand 
years,  leave  no  reasonable  probability  that  the  mole  was  con- 
structed before  Alexander's  time. 

Josephus  quotes  Philostratus  as  saying  of  Nebuchadrezzar: 
"  This  king  besieged  Tyre  thirteen  years,  while  at  the  same  time 
Ethbaal  was  king  of  Tyre."^  Tyre  occupied  a  position  of 
dependency  in  the  period  immediately  following.  This  is  indi- 
cated by  a  contract  tablet  dated  in  Tyre  "Month  Tammuz, 
day  22nd,  year  49th.  Nebuchadrezzar,  King  of  Babylon."^ 
History  has  left  us  no  account  of  the  surrender  of  the  city. 
There  is  no  reason  to  believe  that  it  was  taken  by  assault. 

1  Ezekiel,  XXVI,  7-14. 

2  Ezekiel,  XXVII,  27. 

3  Commentary  on  Ezekiel,  XXVI,  15-18. 

<  Josephus,  Antiquities,  X,  2,  91;  Against  Apion,  I,  21. 

»  Pinches,  in  Records  of  the  Past,  N.  S.,  Vol.  V,  pp.  99,  100. 


Many  of  the  people,  with  much  of  the  treasure  of  Palaetyrus, 
doubtless  escaped  by  sea  before  that  part  of  the  city  fell.  The 
island  city  probably  made  submission  upon  conditions,  without 
receiving  the  hostile  army  within  her  walls.  The  capture  of  the 
city  was  far  different  from  the  prophecy  of  it  according  to  the 
prophet  Ezekiel  himself:  "Nebuchadrezzar  King  of  Babylon 
caused  his  army  to  serve  a  great  service  against  Tyre:  every 
head  was  made  bald"  (with  continuous  wearing  of  the  helmet) 
"and  every  shoulder  was  worn"  (with  carrying  weapons),  "yet 
had  he  no  wages,  nor  his  army,  from  Tyre,  for  the  service  that  he 
had  served  against  it."^  The  siege  probably  ended  with  the 
nominal  submission  of  the  city  and  the  surrender  of  a  number  of 
her  nobles.  It  is  a  suggestive  fact  that  Ethbaal's  life  ended 
with  the  ending  of  the  siege.^  However,  he  was  followed  on  the 
throne  by  Baal,^  a  native  prince,  probably  his  son.  Tyre's 
submission  was  farther  shown,  as  we  shall  see,  from  the  fact  that 
she  selected  her  kings  from  the  nobles  whom  she  was  compelled 
to  send  as  hostages  to  Babylon.  Her  commerce  was  ruined  by 
the  long  siege;  Phoenician  leadership  passed  for  a  time  to  Sidon. 
Palaetyrus  remained  in  ruins  until  the  time  of  Alexander. 

In  Tyrian  history  a  period  of  great  depression  follows  the 
siege  of  Nebuchadrezzar.  After  Baal,  successor  to  Ethbaal, 
had  reigned  ten  years,  572-562  B.C.,  there  was  a  revolution; 
and  a  government  by  (D"^C0D5-^)  Judges,  as  at  Carthage,  was 
adopted.^  Ecnibaal  (^^D'^^p),  son  of  Baslach  {nb\t;bv'2), 
was  the  first  of  the  judges  and  held  office  but  two  months.^ 

Chelbes  (D^nib^D]),  son  of  Abdeus  {[b^'2\l'2V) >  was  his  suc- 
cessor and  ruled  ten  months.^  Abbar  (l^n),  the  high  priest,  as 
the  third  of  the  judges,  maintained  himself  but  three  months  before 
being  recalled.^     Matgen  (JHTO)  and  Gerastart  (ninSi^i^""^), 

1  Ezekiel,  XXIX,  18-19. 

''Vid.  Hengstenberg,  De  Rebus  Tyriorum,  pp.  42-43;  and  Josephus, 
Against  Apion,  I,  21. 

'  Josephus,  Against  Apion,  I,  21. 
*  Ibid. 
» Ibid. 
« Ibid. 
'  Ibid. 


sons  of  Abdelem  (D^/'^^"!^^^),  then  served  as  joint  judges  for 
six  years.^  Belator  Cnni?"/'^^)  ruled  one  year  as  king.  After 
the  death  of  Belator  the  royal  party  came  into  full  control  again.^ 
They  sent  to  Babylon  requesting  that  Merbaal  O^^  IHO), 
who  had  been  detained  there  among  the  hostages  for  the 
loyalty  of  Tyre,  be  allowed  to  return  home  to  be  their  king. 
The  request  was  granted,  and  Merbaal  reigned  four  years.^ 
After  his  death  they  sent  again  to  Babylon  for  Hiram,  brother 
of  Merbaal,  and  he  reigned  in  Tyre  twenty  years  .^ 

In  the  fourteenth  year  of  the  reign  of  Hiram,  Cyrus  captured 
Babylon  (538  B.C.)  and  the  monarchy  passed  under  the  control 
of  the  Persians.^  Thus  began  a  new  chapter  in  the  history  of 

1  Josephus,  Against  Apion,  I,  21. 

2  Ibid. 
» Ibid. 
5  Ibid. 



In  the  period  following  Nebuchadrezzar's  thirteen-year  siege, 
supremacy  among  the  Phoenician  cities  passed  from  Tyre 
to  her  ancient  rival,  Sidon.  Tyre's  commerce  was  ruined 
during  the  siege.  Doubtless  many  of  the  masters  of  her  in- 
dustries escaped  with  their  possessions  and  transferred  their 
activities  to  other  cities.  The  military  cost  of  the  defense  must 
have  been  ruinous.  It  is  not  strange  that  many  years  passed 
before  the  city  recovered  her  strength. 

However  Tyre  had  little  to  complain  of  under  the  Babylonian 
rulers  who  succeeded  Nebuchadrezzar,  and  as  appears  from  the 
records  of  the  Persian  period,  she  recovered  much  of  her  former 

When  Babylon  fell  before  Cyrus  in  538  B.C.,  the  con- 
queror laid  claim  to  all  the  domain  that  had  formerly  belonged 
to  the  Babylonians.  Assuming  sovereignty  over  Phoenicia,  he 
granted  the  Jews  a  concession^  of  Phoenician  timber  which  was 
to  be  cut  in  Lebanon  and  taken  by  sea  to  Joppa  for  them  by 
men  of  "Sidon  and  Tyre."^  There  was  no  reason  for  the  Phoe- 
nician cities  to  resent  the  grant;  on  the  contrary,  commercial 
incentives  must  have  led  them  to  desire  the  renewal  of  the 
ancient  friendship  which  they  had  had  with  Israel,  and  to  wish 
the  good  will  of  the  new  Persian  Empire.  Moreover  they  were 
to  be  well  paid  for  their  services.     That  the  Phoenician  cities 

1  Ezra,  III,  7. 

^  This  order  of  naming  these  cities,  characteristic  of  th's  period,  bears 
witness  that  the  preeminence  had  passed  to  Sidon.  When  Darius  pre- 
pared for  war  against  Greece,  his  spies  set  out  from  Sidon. — Herod.,  Ill, 
136.  The  Phoenician  ships  were  the  best  in  his  fleet,  and  the  Sidonians 
the  best  among  the  Phoenicians. — Herod.,  VI,  98.  When  Darius  visited  his 
fleet  and  the  sovereigns  of  nations  and  captains  of  the  ships  sat  with  him, 
"in  the  first  seat  sat  the  king  of  Sidon;  after  him  the  king  of  Tyre;  then  the 
rest  in  their  order." — Herod.,  VIII,  67. 



claimed  the  rank  of  allies  rather  than  vassals,  is  clear  from 
events  in  the  reign  of  Cambyses. 

Cambyses,  coming  to  the  Persian  throne  in  529  B.C.,  resolved 
upon  an  expedition  against  Egypt.  In  this  campaign  the  co- 
operation of  the  Phoenician  cities,  possessing  as  they  did  the 
finest  naval  equipment  in  the  world,  was  of  very  great  importance. 
Whether  such  cooperation  was  secured  by  promises  or  threats, 
we  are  not  told;  certainly  violence  was  not  used,  for  the  historian 
relates  that  they  joined  the  fleet  voluntarily.^ 

Justin  gives  us  an  account  of  an  insurrection  of  the  slaves  at 
Tyre,  which  he  places  in  this  period.  He  says  that  the  slaves 
formed  a  conspiracy  at  a  time  when  their  masters  were  weakened 
by  long  defensive  fighting  against  the  Persians.  The  slaves  having 
slain  their  masters  and  the  free  citizens,  seized  the  government. 
However,  one  moved  by  pity  secluded  the  son  of  his  master  and 
saved  his  life.  At  a  later  time  it  was  decided  that  the  man 
should  be  crowned  king  over  them,  who  first  saw  the  sunlight 
on  a  certain  morning.  At  the  appointed  place,  while  others 
gazed  eastward  for  the  first  gleam  of  sunlight,  this  young  man 
gazed  westward  upon  the  roofs  of  the  tallest  buildings  of  the 
city,  and  so  won  his  crown.  His  name  was  Strato  (HiriCi^i^) ;  and 
his  son  and  then  his  grandson  ruled  after  him.^  We  have  no 
other  record  of  this.  It  clearly  does  not  fit  into  the  historical 
situation  to  which  Justin  assigns  it.  If  taken  seriously  at  all, 
it  must  be  referred  to  some  one  of  the  sieges  earlier  than  the 
Persian  time. 

Cambyses  made  himself  master  of  Egypt  but  did  not  turn 
back  to  Babylon  as  might  have  been  expected.  Bent  upon 
extending  his  conquests  still  further,  he  commanded  the  Phoe- 
nicians to  join  in  an  expedition  against  Carthage.^  The  incident 
is  vital  to  this  story  because  Carthage  was  the  noblest  daughter 
of  Tyre,  and  if  the  order  had  been  obeyed,  no  one  can  measure 
what  the  effect  upon  human  history  would  have  been.     The 

1  Herodotus,  III,  19. 

2  Justin,  XVIII,  3. 

'  Vid.  Herodotus,  III,  19. 


Phoenicians  refused  to  obey  the  order  of  Cambyses,  saying  that 
they  were  bound  to  the  Carthaginians  by  solemn  oaths,  and  that 
it  would  be  a  wicked  act  to  make  war  upon  their  own  children. 
The  courage  of  this  answer  may  be  measured  when  one  remem- 
bers the  character  of  Cambyses  and  the  power  of  Persia;  but  the 
value  that  Cambyses  set  upon  Phoenician  good  will  is  shown 
by  the  fact  that  he  honored  their  answer  and  rescinded  the 
obnoxious  order. 

Tyre  must  have  been. benefited  commercially  by  the  increased 
facilities  for  land  communication  afforded  by  the  fast  post- 
routes/  and  the  introduction  of  a  uniform  metallic  currency 
throughout  the  Persian  Empire.^ 

Under  Darius  the  empire  was  divided  into  twenty  satrapies. 
Tyre  was  in  the  fifth  satrapy,  which  was  composed  of  all  Phoe- 
nicia, Palestine,  Syria  and  Cyprus.  The  tribute  of  this  satrapy 
was  fixed  at  350  talents.^  The  Phoenician  cities  enjoyed  a  large 
amount  of  autonomy  and  retained  their  native  kings.^  They 
also  met  in  annual  council  at  Tripolis,  usually  without  inter- 
ference from  the  Persians.^ 

After  the  part  that  Tyre  took  in  the  Egyptian  expedition,  she 
was  not  called  upon  to  bear  arms  for  the  Persians  until  498  B.C., 
when  the  Greeks  of  Asia  revolted.  Cyprus,  where  the  Greek 
population  outnumbered  the  Phoenician,  joined  the  revolt. 
Phoenicia  furnished  the  fleet  for  Darius.  A  double  battle  was 
fought  near  Salamis,  and,  though  the  Ionian  Greeks  defeated 
the  Phoenicians  at  sea,  according  to  the  Greek  account,  the 
Persian  land  forces  gained  so  complete  a  victory  that  the  Ionian 
fleet  withdrew  and  the  Persians  were  left  masters  of  the  situation.^ 

Darius  proceeded  from  the  conquest  of  Cyprus  to  attack  the 
Ionian  cities.  A  naval  force  of  600  vessels  was  assembled  near 
Miletus,  the  city  of  Aristagorus,  author  of  the  Ionian  revolt. 

1  Vid.  Esther,  VIII,  9-10. 

^  Vid.  Rawlinson,  in  his  Herodotus,  I,  709,  and  IV,  30  note. 

» Herodotus,  III,  89-91. 

*  Ibid.,  VIII,  67. 

6  Diodorus,  XVI,  41. 

8  Vid.  Herodotus,  V,  104-116. 


In  this  fleet  the  Phoenicians  were  most  zealous.^  In  the  naval 
battle,  494  B.C.,  near  the  island  of  Lade  opposite  Miletus,  they 
defeated  the  lonians,^  and  the  conquest  of  Miletus  soon  followed. 
The  Phoenician  fleet  was  used  by  the  Persians  in  the  conquest 
of  the  islands  of  the  Aegean  and  of  various  cities  on  the  European 
shore.  Miltiades,  afterwards  hero  of  Marathon,  narrowly 
escaped  capture  by  one  of  their  vessels  and  his  son  Metiochus 
was  captured.^ 

It  may  be  safely  assumed  that  the  Phoenician  cities  furnished 
a  large  proportion  of  the  fleets  with  which  Mardonius  in  492  B.C., 
and  Datis  and  Artaphernes  in  490  B.C.  made  their  expeditions 
against  Greece.  When  in  485  B.C.  Xerxes  determined  to 
attempt  the  conquest  of  Greece,  Phoenicia  again  supported 
Persian  arms. 

A  ship-canal  was  to  be  cut  through  the  isthmus  that  joins 
Mt.  Athos  to  the  mainland.  The  Phoenicians  made  their 
portion  of  the  cutting  twice  as  wide  at  the  top  as  was  required 
at  the  bottom.  They  "  showed  in  this  the  skill  which  they  were 
wont  to  exhibit  in  all  their  undertakings."^  With  the  Egyptians 
they  constructed  the  pontoon  bridge  across  the  Hellespont  by 
which  the  armies  of  Xerxes  marched  from  Asia  into  Europe.^ 

At  the  Battle  of  Artimisium  they  distinguished  themselves 
less  than  the  Egyptians,^  but  at  Salamis  they  were  stationed 
over  against  the  Athenians.  How  large  a  part  Tyre  had  in  the 
naval  forces  of  Xerxes  is  not  known,  but  of  his  twelve  hundred 
and  seven  ships,  Phoenicia  furnished  three  hundred;^  and  Tyre's 
importance  among  the  allies  of  Xerxes  was  second  only  to  that 
of  Sidon.^  Among  the  most  renowned  of  those  who  sailed  was 
Mapen,  son  of  Sirom  (Hiram)  the  Tyrian.^ 

A  combat  between  a  Phoenician  and  an  Athenian  ship  brought 
on  the  general  engagement  at  Salamis.  The  Phoenicians  bore 
an  honorable  part  in  the  battle,  but  fell  under  the  displeasure 
of  Xerxes.     In  the  confusion  of  the  ships,  crowded  in  the  narrow 

1  Herodotus,  VI,  6.  » Ibid.,  VIII,  67. 

2  Ibid.,  VI,  14.  ■  « Ibid.,  VIII,  17,  5. 

3  Ibid.,  VI,  41.  7  Ibid.,  VII,  89. 
*  Ibid.,  VII,  23.  « Ibid.,  VII,  34. 
» Ibid.,  VII,  98. 


strait,  they  ran  foul  of  each  other;  several  Phoenician  ships  were 
sunk  by  the  lonians;  the  Phoenicians  protested  against  this  as 
an  act  of  treachery,  to  Xerxes  who  was  looking  down  upon  the 
battle.  While  the  protest  was  being  made  the  king  beheld  an 
unusual  display  of  valor  on  the  part  of  a  Greek  vessel  which 
was  in  the  Persian  service.  This  incident  turned  the  wrath  of 
Xerxes,  enraged  by  defeat,  upon  the  heads  of  the  Phoenicians. 
He  charged  them  with  imputing  their  own  cowardice  to  the 
lonians,  and  ordered  a  number  of  their  oflficers  beheaded.  The 
others,  moved  by  resentment  and  fears  of  further  outrage, 
withdrew  at  nightfall  to  the  Attic  shore  and  thence  sailed  away 
to  Asia.^  Their  transports  remained  and  were  employed  in  the 
construction  of  the  bridge  to  Salamis  by  which  Xerxes  sought 
to  conceal  his  purpose  of  flight,^  but  for  fifteen  years  we  read 
of  no  Phoenician  navy  in  Persian  service,  though  the  war  with 
Greece  continued.  Not  until  465  B.C.,  when  the  victorious 
Athenians  threatened  the  island  of  Cyprus,  did  Phoenicia  employ 
her  naval  force  in  Persian  service.^  In  the  next  three-quarters 
of  a  century  the  Phoenician  cities  seem  to  have  been  loyal  in 
their  submission  to  Persia.  Their  forces  had  prominent  part 
in  the  numerous  Persian  wars.^ 

Tyre  was  involved  in  the  war  which  arose  in  392  B.C.  between 
the  Persians  and  Evagorus  of  Cyprus.  This  prince  had  over- 
thrown the  rule  of  the  Cypriot  Phoenicians  and  had  put  to  death 
the  reigning  despot,  Abdemon,  the  Tyrian,  who  was  friendly  to 
Persia.^  The  power  of  Persia  was  waning.  Athens  sent  a  fleet 
for  the  support  of  Evagorus.  Acoris,  king  of  Egypt,  sent  aid. 
Several  states  must  have  been  in  secret  sympathy  with  him. 
He  took  Tyre  by  assault,  according  to  Isocrates,^  which  probably 
means  that  Tyre  voluntarily  surrendered.  The  city  supplied 
him  with  twenty  triremes.^  But  the  peace  of  Antalcidas,  387 
B.C.,  deprived  him  of  the  aid  of  Athens,  and  after  ten  years  of 
revolt  he  was  compelled  to  submit  to  Persia  again,  but  allowed 

1  Diodorus,  XI,  19.  ^  Ibid.,  XIV,  98. 

2  Herodotus,  VIII,  97.  » Isocrates,  II,  101. 
*  Diodorus,  XI,  60.  ^  Diodorus,  XV,  2. 
« Ibid.,  XI,  62;  XII,  3,  XIII,  38,  XIV,  83. 


to  retain  his  crown.  With  the  submission  of  Evagorus,  Tyre 
became  again  subject  to  the  Persians  also,  but  the  ties  which 
bound  the  Phoenician  cities  to  the  Persian  Empire  were  weak- 

The  successful  revolt  of  Egypt,  and  the  general  dissatisfaction 
of  the  states  of  the  west^  led  in  362  B.C.  to  the  War  of  the 
Satraps.  Phoenicia  participated  in  the  revolt.  Tachos,  King  of 
Egypt,  was  welcomed  by  the  Phoenician  cities,  but  disaffection 
among  hjs  own  subjects  compelled  him  to  abandon  the  move- 
ment, and  the  rebellion  of  the  satrapies  was  subdued.  Tyre 
was  still  under  the  Persian  yoke.^ 

The  satrap  of  Ochus  treated  the  Phoenicians  with  great  inso- 
lence, and  as  a  result,  at  a  general  assembly  of  the  Phoenician 
cities  held  at  Tripolis,  352  B.C.,  independence  was  declared. 
The  Persian  officers  at  Sidon  were  killed,  the  royal  residence 
was  destroyed,  preparations  for  war  were  made  and  an  alliance 
with  Egypt  was  effected.  Egypt  sent  four  thousand  Greek 
mercenaries  under  Mentor.  Two  satraps,  Belesys  of  Syria  and 
Mazaeus  of  Cilicia,  who  were  sent  to  subdue  the  rebellion,  were 
defeated  in  battle.  Meanwhile  Cyprus  again  revolted.  Ochus 
collected  an  army  of  three  hundred  and  forty  thousand  men, 
arranged  for  vast  naval  support,^  and  set  out  in  person  for 
Phoenicia.  Tennes,  King  of  Sidon,  sought  to  purchase  personal 
safety  at  the  price  of  the  betrayal  of  his  city.  The  Sidonians 
resolved  to  die  rather  than  fall  into  the  hands  of  Ochus.  Each 
citizen  shut  himself  with  his  family  in  his  own  home  and  then 
applying  the  torch  consumed  himself  and  his  family  with  his 
dwelling.  More  than  forty  thousand  persons  are  said  to  have 
perished  in  the  conflagration.^ 

Persia  under  Ochus  showed  unusual  strength.  Tyre  and  the 
other  Phoenician  cities,  resumed  submission  to  the  Persian 
crown.  They  enjoyed  peace  from  351  to  333  B.C.  Sidon  was 
rebuilt.  Tyre  doubtless  profited  in  a  commercial  way  from 
the  disaster  of  Sidon,  much  as  Sidon  had  profited  from  Tyre's 
disastrous  siege  under  Nebuchadrezzar. 

1  Diodorus,  XV,  41  ff.  ^  Ibid.,  XVI,  40. 

2  Ibid.,  XV,  90  ff.  *  Ibid.,  XVI,  41-45. 



During  the  eighteen  years  of  quietness  that  Tyre  enjoyed 
after  the  struggle  for  independence  in  352  B.C.,  the  power  of 
Persia  was  waning,  and  that  of  Greece  was  increasing.  In  336 
B.C.  Alexander  the  Great  came  to  the  throne  of  Macedonia. 
He  made  himself  master  of  Greece  and  soon  prepared  to  invade 
Asia.  The  victory  (334  B.C.)^  at  the  Granicus  River  gave  him 
possession  of  Asia  Minor;  and  that  near  the  city  of  Issus  resulted 
in  the  withdrawal  of  Darius  beyond  the  Euphrates.^  Alexander 
did  not  at  once  pursue  Darius.  The  navies  of  Cyprus,  Phoenicia, 
and  Egypt  were  still  in  Persian  service.  The  conqueror  deemed 
it  wise  to  detach  these  before  pushing  his  conquest  further  into 
the  empire.  He  therefore  turned  south  into  Phoenicia.  The 
Phoenician  cities  took  no  concerted  action;  they  may  have 
expected  him  to  pursue  Darius,  and  so  may  have  been  taken  by 
surprise.  Their  forces  were  serving  in  the  Persian  navy,  but 
were  not  hindering  the  Macedonian,  whose  campaign  was  a  land 
campaign.  The  memory  of  the  cruelties  of  Ochus  were  still 
fresh.  Little  opposition  to  Alexander  was  to  be  expected. 
Starto,  son  of  Gerastartus,  King  of  Aradus,  met  Alexander  and 
presented  him  a  golden  crown  and  the  submission  of  his  pos- 
sessions. Sidon  welcomed  the  conqueror  most  gladly.  Her 
king,  Starto,  was  serving  in  the  Persian  navy  and  was  suspected 
of  preference  for  Persia.  He  was  deposed,  and  at  the  choice  of  He- 
phaeston,  the  throne  was  given  to  Abdalonymus  (D^^"Pi7"nDi7), 
who  was  an  obscure  member  of  the  royal  family,  so  poor  that  he 
followed  the  occupation  of  a  gardener.* 

^  It  is  not  unlikely  that  Zech.,  IX,  2-4,  refers  to  this  siege. 
2  Diodorus,  XVII,  19  ff. 
» Ibid.,  XVII,  33-39. 

<Curtius,  IV,  1;  Justin,  XI,  10.  Diodorus,  XVII,  46,  47,  transfers  this 
story  to  Tyre. 



Azemilcus  (TI/'D"li7),  King  of  Tyre,  like  the  other  Phoenician 
rulers,  was  serving  in  the  Persian  fleet;  but  an  embassy,  headed 
by  his  son,  met  Alexander  and  presented  him  a  crown  of 
gold,  with  other  rich  gifts,  and  declared  formally  to  him  the 
submission  of  Tyre.^  The  Tyrians  probably  thought  that 
Alexander  would  be  content  with  their  nominal  submission,  and 
would  press  on  into  Egypt.  But  there  were  reasons  why  he 
must  completely  possess  Tyre.  She  was  now  at  the  head  of 
the  Phoenician  cities.  Her  position  would  decide  whether  the 
Phoenician  fleet  would  continue  under  the  flag  of  Persia  or  not. 
While  there  was  any  question  as  to  his  control  here,  there  must 
be  danger  that  a  hostile  fleet  would  carry  the  war  to  Greece  and 
necessitate  his  hasty  return.^  He  commended  their  good-will 
and  bade  them  announce  to  their  government  that  he  would 
shortly  enter  their  city  to  offer  sacrifices  to  Heracles.  The 
Greeks  had  identified  Heracles  with  Melkart,  and  as  Alexander 
claimed  to  be  a  descendant  of  Heracles,  there  may  have  been 
some  sincerity  in  his  word.  But  the  Tyrians  saw  that  he  pur- 
posed permanently  to  occupy  their  city,  and  were  not  prepared 
to  surrender  themselves  so  completely  into  his  power.  After 
dehberation  they  sent  word  that  in  all  else  they  would  do  his 
will,  but  that  they  would  not  admit  within  the  wall  of  the 
island  city  either  Persians  or  Macedonians,^ — that  if  the  king 
wished  to  sacrifice  to  Heracles,  he  might  do  so  in  the  temple  of 
Melkart  in  Palaetyrus  on  the  mainland,  which  temple  they 
said  was  older  than  that  of  the  island  city.  Upon  receiving  this 
reply,  Alexander  was  violently  angry.  He  dismissed  the  messen- 
gers with  the  threat  that  if  they  would  not  open  their  gates  to 
him,  he  would  break  their  gates  down.  The  threat  of  the 
conqueror  did  not  overawe  the  Tyrians.  They  could  expect  the 
hostile  armies  of  Babylon  soon  to  engage  Alexander's  attention. 
Alexander  had  no  fleet  with  which  to  attack  them.  In  the  event 
of  a  siege  the  Persian  fleet,  in  which  their  own  vessels  were 
serving,  might  be  counted  on  for  help.     At  least  their  own  fleet 

1  Arrian,  II,  15.     Curtius,  IV,  2. 

2  Vid.  Arrian,  II,  17. 
^  Arrian,  II,  16. 


under  the  leadership  of  Azemilcus,  could  be  recalled.  There 
was  no  reason  to  believe  that  the  ships  of  other  Phoenician  cities 
would  show  any  great  enthusiasm  in  attacking  their  kinsfolk. 
Egypt  which  was  next  to  be  invaded  would  have  weighty  reasons 
for  aiding  Tyre.  An  embassy  from  Carthage,  being  at  Tyre 
at  the  time  of  Alexander's  demand,  counseled  resistance  and 
promised  that  the  squadrons  of  Carthage  would  soon  come  to 
the  city's  assistance.^  In  former  times  the  city  had  shown  her- 
self well  nigh  impregnable.  That  Alexander's  method  of  attack 
was  not  anticipated  is  not  strange,  for  there  was  no  precedent 
for  it  in  the  annals  of  warfare.  The  walls  which  surrounded  the  city 
rose  to  the  height  of  a  hundred  and  fifty  feet  on  the  side  toward  the 
mainland.  Their  stones  were  of  such  a  size  and  so  well  laid  as 
to  be  secure  against  any  engines  of  attack  that  could  be  operated 
from  the  unsteady  surface  of  the  water.  Successful  assault  was 
impossible  unless  engines  of  war  could  be  planted  on  firm  ground 
and  brought  to  the  height  of  the  wall.  But  the  island  was 
separated  from  the  mainland  by  a  channel  a  half  mile  wide, 
through  which  the  current  ran  very  swiftly  and  which,  especially 
when  the  south  wind  blew,  was  dangerous  for  shipping.^  The 
Tyrians,  therefore,  seeming  to  have  little  to  fear,  remained  firm. 

Alexander  began  the  siege.  He  seized  Palaetyrus^  which  was 
in  great  part  in  ruins  or  deserted  of  its  inhabitants,  but  for  a 
time  was  not  able  to  strike  a  blow  at  Tyre.  Meanwhile  Tyre  was 
assembling  her  fleet,  setting  up  engines  for  throwing  missiles 
from  the  walls  at  any  vessel  that  might  approach,  arming  her 
citizens,  and  preparing  for  attack  or  siege.^ 

Alexander  resolved  to  construct  a  mole  two  hundred  feet  wide 
out  to  the  island,  upon  which  he  could  plant  engines  of  war, 
and  to  press  the  siege.  The  ruins  of  Palaetyrus  furnished 
abundance  of  stone. ^  Wood  could  be  secured  in  Lebanon 
nearby.^  The  people  of  the  neighboring  towns  were  pressed 
into  service.^    The  Tyrian  troops  intercepted  parties  who  were 

1  Curtius,  IV,  2.  *  Curtius,  IV,  2. 

2  Curtius,  IV,  2.  «  Diodorus,  VII,  40. 

3  Diodorus,  XVII,  40.  «  Curtius,  IV,  2. 
'  Diodorus,  XVII,  49. 


bringing  in  stone,  and  the  Arabs  of  the  Syrian  desert  attacked 
the  Macedonian  wood-cutters  in  Lebanon.^  The  Tyrians  ridi- 
culed Alexander,  asking  him  if  he  thought  he  would  overcome 
Poseidon.^  Still  the  work  progressed.  Near  the  shore  piles 
were  driven  with  ease  into  the  mud  bottom,^  but  nearer  the 
island  the  water  became  deeper.  There  the  current  through 
the  channel  worked  its  way  through  the  interstices  of  the  mole, 
washing  out  the  work.  Archers  and  slingers  in  the  Tyrian 
vessels  harassed  the  workmen  on  the  mole,*  and  Alexander, 
having  no  fleet,  was  powerless  to  prevent  their  near  approach. 
As  the  work  drew  near  to  the  city  walls,  the  workmen  were 
exposed  to  the  missiles  hurled  from  above.  The  Greeks  met 
these  difficulties  by  the  erection  of  two  lofty  wooden  towers  on 
the  extremity  of  the  mole  from  which  to  assail  the  ships  and 
the  warriors  on  the  wall.  They  protected  the  workmen  from 
fiery  darts  and  other  missiles  by  suspending  sails  or  hides. ^ 
The  Tyrians  then  fitted  up  a  large  horse-transport  as  a  fire-ship.^ 
They  stored  the  hold  with  combustible  materials.  On  the 
prow  were  two  masts,  each  with  a  projecting  arm  from  which 
was  suspended  a  cauldron  filled  with  bitumen,  sulphur,  and 
other  highly  inflammable  materials.  The  stern  of  the  vessel  was 
loaded  with  stone  and  sand,  and  was  thus  depressed.  In  this 
way  the  prow  was  elevated  in  order  that  it  might  glide  over  the 
mole  and  reach  the  towers.  On  the  fore  part  of  the  vessel  were 
piled  pitch,  sulphur,  and  other  combustible  materials.  When  the 
wind  favored  them,  they  ran  the  fire-ship  at  full  speed  upon  the 
mole,  setting  torch  to  the  fuels  as  they  drew  near.  The  crew 
escaped  by  small  boats  or  by  swimming.  The  effort  was  entirely 
successful.  The  cauldrons  scattered  their  fiery  mass  over  the 
mole.  Tyrian  soldiers  in  ships  just  outside  the  reach  of  the 
conflagration  drove  back  all  who  attempted  to  extinguish  the 

1  Curtius,  IV,  2. 

2  Diodorus,  XVII,  41. 

3  Arrian,  II,  18. 

*  Diodorus,  XVII,  42;  Curtius,  IV,  2. 

B  Vid.  Arrian,  II,  18. 

6  Vid.  Arrian,  II,  19;  Diodorus,  XVII,  41;  Curtius,  IV,  3. 


flames.  The  towers  were  soon  ablaze;  their  defenders  either 
perished  in  the  flames,  or  leaping  into  the  sea,  were  made  prisoners 
by  the  Tyrians,  who  bruised  their  hands  with  stones  or  clubs 
so  that  they  were  unable  to  swim  away.  Tyrians  in  small  boats 
set  fire  to  the  machines  which  the  flames  from  the  ship  had  not 
reached.  They  pulled  up  the  stakes  that  protected  the  face  of 
the  mole,  and  the  heavy  sea  that  accompanied  the  wind  swept 
the  whole  work  away. 

Alexander  ordered  a  new  mole  to  be  constructed.  It  was  to 
be  wider  than  the  first^  and  so  was  to  have  space  for  more  ma- 
chines. It  was  to  incline  to  the  southwest  instead  of  crossing 
the  strait  in  a  direct  line,^  and  so  would  not  expose  a  full  side 
to  the  storm.  The  work  was  pressed  with  greater  vigor  than 
before.  Whole  trees  with  branches  were  drawn  into  the  water 
and  upon  them  stones  and  dirt  were  placed.  But  Tyrian  divers, 
plunging  into  the  water  at  some  distance  from  the  work,  ap- 
proached and  attached  hooks  to  the  projecting  boughs.  The 
trees  were  then  dragged  out,  bringing  down  with  them  large 
portions  of  the  work.^ 

It  became  evident  to  Alexander  that  if  Tyre  were  to  be  con- 
quered, her  fleet  must  be  defeated  or  at  least  kept  at  bay.  He 
therefore  went  to  Sidon  to  collect  ships.  The  squadrons  of 
Sidon,  Aradus  and  Byblus  had  withdrawn  from  the  Persian  service 
on  hearing  that  Alexander  was  master  of  these  cities,  and  just  at 
this  critical  time  they  entered  the  harbor  at  Sidon.^  Alexander 
succeeded  in  enlisting  these  squadrons  against  Tyre  and  thus 
secured  eighty  ships.  Soon  afterwards  there  joined  him  ten 
ships  from  Rhodes,  ten  from  Lycia,  three  from  Soli  and  Malus, 
and  a  penteconter  from  Macedonia.  Then  the  kings  of  Cyprus, 
having  heard  of  the  defeat  of  Darius  and  Alexander's  mastery 
over  Phoenicia,  placed  at  the  order  of  the  conqueror  their 
combined  fleets  of  a  hundred  and  twenty  ships. 

While  these  vessels  were  being  put  in  order  for  battle,  Alex- 
ander with   cavalry   and  light  troops   made   an   eleven   days' 

1  Vid.  Arrian,  II,  19.  » Ibid.,  IV,  3. 

2  Vid.  Curtius,  IV,  3.  *  Vid.  Arrian,  II,  20. 


campaign  against  the  Arabs  who  had  been  hindering  the  work 
of  the  woodmen  in  Lebanon.  The  Arabs  were  repelled  and 
peace  was  made  with  the  inhabitants  of  the  regions. 

Returning  to  Sidon,  Alexander  found  that  Cleander  had 
arrived  with  three  thousand  Greek  mercenaries.  Alexander 
manned  his  ships  with  his  bravest  soldiers,  purposing  if  possible 
to  fight  hand  to  hand  on  the  decks.  Assuming  leadership  of 
the  right  wing  himself,  he  moved  toward  Tyre  with  his  ships  in 
order  of  battle.     The  fleet  halted  outside  the  Sidonian  harbor. 

The  Tyrians  had  not  known  of  the  naval  accessions  that  had 
come  to  the  enemy;  they  were  dismayed  upon  beholding  the 
great  fleet  moving  down  upon  them.  They  did  not  care  to  join 
battle  with  the  allied  fleets.  Instead  they  blocked  the  mouths 
of  their  harbors  with  their  ships,^  and  began  to  prepare  for  the 
worst  by  sending  away  to  Carthage  such  of  their  wives,  children, 
and  old  men  as  could  not  render  service  in  the  defense  of  their 
city.2    . 

As  the  Tyrian  fleet  did  not  come  out  to  battle,  Alexander  moved 
against  the  city.  He  found  it  impossible  to  enter  the  harbor, 
but  engaged  and  sank  three  of  the  outermost  triremes.^  He 
then  anchored  under  the  lee  of  the  mole  which  had  again  ad- 
vanced toward  the  city's  walls.  The  next  day  the  Cyprian  fleet 
was  stationed  off  the  Sidonian  harbor,  while  the  Phoenician  stood 
off  the  Egyptian  entrance,  near  to  that  part  of  the  mole  where 
Alexander's  own  tent  was  pitched.^  The  workmen  on  the  mole, 
now  amply  protected,  quickly  brought  it  up  to  the  city  wall. 
The  towers  were  brought  up  to  the  wall  and  were  armed  with 
many  engines.  Other  engines  were  made  by  Cyprians  and 
Phoenicians,^  and  mounted  on  the  horse-transports  and  the 
heavier  class  of  triremes,  and  with  these  the  walls  north  and 
south  of  the  mole  were  assailed,  while  the  main  attack  was  made 
from  the  mole  itself.  When  the  ships  sought  to  approach  the 
walls  with  their  battering  rams,  they  found  that  the  Tyrians 
had  thrown  large  blocks  of  stone  into  the  sea,  by  which  they  were 

1  Arrian  II,  20.  »  Curtius,  IV,  3. 

2  Diodorus,  XVII,  41.  *  Arrian,  II,  29. 
« Arrian,  II,  21. 


kept  out  of  reach.  The  Macedonians  sought  to  raise  these 
stones,  but  the  unsteadiness  of  their  ships  afforded  poor  purchase. 
They  attempted  to  anchor  their  ships;  but  the  Tyrians,  ap- 
proaching in  small  vessels  covered  to  ward  off  missiles,  came 
under  their  prows  and  sterns  and  cut  the  cables  by  which  they 
were  anchored.  Alexander  stationed  armed  guard-boats  but 
the  Tyrians  sent  divers  and  cut  the  cables  as  before.  The 
Macedonians  then  employed  chains  for  anchoring,  pulled  up  the 
stones  and  cast  them  into  deep  water,  and  had  unobstructed 
access  to  the  walls. 

The  Tyrians  now  resolved  to  attack  the  Cyprian  fleet.  Their 
plans  were  made  with  the  utmost  secrecy.^  They  spread  sails 
before  the  mouth  of  the  harbor  so  that  their  operations  could 
not  be  seen.  They  chose  to  make  the  attack  at  noon  when 
many  of  the  sailors  were  at  their  meals  and  when  Alexander  had 
retired  to  his  tent  on  the  farther  side  of  the  mole.  Thirteen 
vessels, — three  quinqueremes,  three  quadriremes,  and  seven 
triremes, — were  manned  by  picked  crews  and  warriors,  and 
passed  silently  out  of  the  harbor  in  single  file.  When  the  alarm 
was  inevitable,  they  raised  a  shout  of  battle  and  made  a  fierce  and 
swift  onset  against  the  surprised  Cyprians.  The  ships  of 
Pnytagoras,  King  of  Salamis,  and  Androcles,  King  of  Amanthus, 
and  Pasicrates,  a  Thurian,  were  sunk  in  the  first  charge.  Others 
were  disabled  and  run  ashore.  But  Alexander,  having  remained 
at  his  tent  a  shorter  time  than  usual,  quickly  returned  to  the 
place  where  the  fleet  had  been  stationed.^  He  first  directed  his 
ships  with  all  possible  haste  to  block  the  harbor,  preventing 
other  ships  from  coming  out,  and  cutting  off  the  escape  of  those 
already  without,  if  the  battle  should  go  against  them.  He  then 
hastened  to  the  southern  side  of  the  mole  and  led  his  vessels 
around  the  island  to  come  upon  the  Tyrian  fleet  unawares. 
The  move,  though  unseen  by  those  in  the  heat  of  the  battle,  was 
perceived  by  those  on  the  walls.  Frantic  calls  and  repeated 
signals  were  unnoticed  amid  the  battle  din  until  Alexander's 

1  Arrian,  II,  21. 

2  Arrian,  II,  22. 


fleet  arrived.  Then  the  Tyrians  turned  and  fled  toward  the 
harbor.  Only  a  few  were  able  to  enter;  most  of  them  were 
disabled  or  captured,  the  crews  and  soldiers  leaping  overboard 
and  saving  themselves  by  swimming  to  the  friendly  shore. 
The  effort  ended  in  confusion. 

This  victory  allowed  the  Macedonians  freer  operations  against 
the  wall,  but  its  height  and  solidarity  opposite  the  mole  baffled 
their  efforts.^  They  attempted  a  midnight  attack  by  floating  bat- 
teries on  the  part  near  the  Sidonian  harbor.  But  a  sudden  storm 
tore  aside  the  ships  that  had  been  fastened  together  and  covered 
with  planks  to  give  footing  to  the  soldiers,  and  these  were  thrown 
into  the  water .^  In  the  darkness  signals  could  not  be  seen ;  in  the 
confusion  commands  could  not  be  heard.  The  soldiers  over- 
powered the  pilots  and  compelled  them  to  return  to  shore.  This 
effort  also  ended  in  confusion. 

The  Tyrians  began  a  second  wall  within  the  first,  that  they 
might  be  secure  even  if  the  first  were  broken  through.^ 

A  great  fear  rose  in  Tyre  to  add  to  the  distress  of  her  people. 
Strange  portents  were  reported.  A  statue  of  Apollo  had  been 
set  up  in  the  city  by  the  Carthaginians  and  had  received  the 
homage  of  the  people.^  During  the  siege  the  Tyrians  had 
treated  it  with  contempt  as  favoring  Alexander.  A  citizen  now 
reported  that  in  a  vision  he  had  seen  Apollo  preparing  to  leave 
the  doomed  city.  To  prevent  the  desertion,  the  Tyrians  bound 
the  image  with  a  golden  chain  to  the  altar  of  their  native  deity 
Melkart.^  There  were  some  who  would  have  propitiated  Moloch 
(Saturn)  by  the  sacrifice  of  a  child  of  royal  birth  according  to 
an  ancient  custom  in  time  of  extreme  public  peril.  But  their 
counsel  did  not  prevail.^  According  to  Arrian,  some  Mace- 
donians on  voyage  from  Sidon  were  taken,  put  to  death  upon 
the  walls  within  full  view  of  their  countrymen,  and  their  bodies 
thrown  into  the  sea.'^  Curtius^  says  that  Alexander  saw  that 
the  siege  would  mean  a  long  delay  for  him,  and  therefore  sent 

1  Arrian,  II,  21-22.  ^  Diodorus,  XVII,  41;  Curtius,  IV,  3. 

2  Curtius,  IV,  3.  e  Curtius,  IV,  3. 

3  Diodorus,  XVII,  34.  ^  Arrian,  II,  24. 

*  Curtius,  IV,  3.  «  Curtius,  IV,  2,  15. 


heralds  to  the  Tyrians  to  secure  peace,  but  that  the  Tyrians 
murdered  these  heralds  and  hurled  them  into  the  deep.  He 
places  this  event  at  the  beginning  of  the  siege  and  gives  it  as  the 
final  cause  of  Alexander's  decision  to  proceed  with  the  siege. 
And  it  is  possible  that  Arrian's  story  is  a  confusion  of  the  event 
recounted  by  Curtius. 

An  embassy  from  Carthage  arrived  and  offered  an  asylum  of 
escape  for  such  as  could  reach  their  city,  but  brought  news  that 
they  found  it  impossible  to  send  miUtary  aid.^ 

The  attacks  upon  the  wall  continued  to  be  made  with  the 
greatest  energy  and  to  be  met  with  the  greatest  skill.  As  a 
protection  against  the  battering  rams  and  the  missiles  of  the 
catapults,  leathern  bags  filled  with  sea-wped  were  suspended 
from  the  wall.^  The  ingenious  mechanics  of  Tyre  exhausted 
their  skill  in  defense  of  their  city.  Circular  machines  placed 
upon  the  walls  were  set  in  rapid  motion  to  intercept  darts  and 
other  missiles.  The  mole  having  reached  the  island  the  Mace- 
donians raised  their  towers  to  the  height  of  the  wall,  and  by 
throwing  bridges  across,  tried  to  enter  the  city.  The  Tyrians, 
tying  grappling  hooks  to  long  ropes,  and  throwing  them  out, 
caught  soldiers  on  the  towers.  Bodies  thus  caught  were  mangled ; 
some  were  dragged  from  the  towers  and  fell  to  their  death. 
Some  were  entangled  by  nets  and  dragged  to  the  same  fate. 
Red-hot  metal  was  thrown  by  machines,  and  did  much  execu- 
tion. Sand,  heated  in  shields  of  brass  and  iron,  was  poured  down 
upon  those  who  approached  the  walls,  and  sifting  under  the 
armor,  caused  such  intense  pain  that  soldiers  threw  off  their 
armor  and  exposed  themselves  to  the  lance  or  arrow  from  the 
walls  .^  With  scythes  on  yard-arms  the  Tyrians  cut  the  ropes 
with  which  the  battering  rams  were  worked.  With  cranes 
(Kopa^i)  and  "iron  hands"  they  siezed  the  men  protected  by 
shields  and  dragged  them  to  their  death.*  In  the  evening  the 
Tyrians  armed  with  axes  charged  the  Macedonians  at  the 
bridges  and,  after  a  bloody  conflict,  drove  them  back.     It  is 

1  Curtius,  IV,  3.  "  Ibid.,  XVII,  43,  44.     Curtius,  IV,  3, 

2  Diodorus,  XVII,  45.  *  Ibid. 


said  that  Alexander  meditated  the  abandonment  of  the  siege 
after  this  repulse.^ 

On  the  second  day  following  he  ordered  a  general  assault. 
The  ships  with  the  battering  rams  were  brought  up  against  the 
wall  north  and  south  of  the  mole.  Those  on  the  south  soon 
made  a  breach.  They  then  gave  place  to  two  ships  on  which 
were  bridges  and  storming  parties.  Admetus  was  the  com- 
mander of  the  one  of  these  which  carried  Alexander;  the  other 
was  commanded  by  Koinus.^  •  Meanwhile  the  fleets  were  assailing 
both  harbors  to  force  entrance  if  the  Tyrians  should  attempt  to 
thwart  the  main  assault.  At  the  same  time  other  vessels  were 
detailed  to  sail  around  the  city  and  menace  the  defenders  at 
many  points.  By  these  means  the  bridges  were  laid  to  the 
breach  in  the  wall  and  the  soldiers  advanced  to  the  conflict. 
Admetus  was  first  to  set  foot  upon  the  wall;  at  once  he  fell 
mortally  wounded  by  a  lance,  but  still  exhorting  his  soldiers  to 
follow.  The  defenders  were  soon  repulsed.  Alexander,  with 
his  guards,  was  among  the  first  upon  the  wall.  He  ordered  the 
soldiers  to  proceed  to  the  royal  palace  as  affording  easy  access 
to  the  city.  Meanwhile,  both  harbors  had  been  forced  and  the 
Tyrian  ships  defeated.  The  city  was  in  the  hands  of  her  enemies; 
her  people  defeated  but  not  conquered.  Some,  having  barricaded 
their  houses,  and  gone  to  the  roofs,  threw  down  stones  and 
other  missiles  upon  the  heads  of  the  Macedonian  soldiers. 
Many  shut  themselves  up  in  their  homes  and  died  at  their  own 
hands.  Many  died  in  the  streets.  Others  barricaded  them- 
selves within  the  sacred  building  called  the  Agenorium,^  and 
made  desperate  resistance  to  Alexander  and  his  soldiers  until 
they  were  overpowered  and  killed  almost  to  the  last  man. 
There  was  general  slaughter  in  the  streets  and  squares.  The 
Macedonians  were  enraged  by  the  stubborn  resistance  of  the 
city  and  especially  by  the  recent  murder  of  some  of  their  country- 
men; they  therefore  showed  no  mercy.     A  large  part  of  the  city 

1  Diodorus,  XVII,  45;  Curtius,  IV,  4. 

2  Arrian,  II,  23. 

^  Agenor,  father  of  Cadmus,  was  said  to  have  founded  Tyre.  Vid.  Roscher, 
Ausfiihrliches  Lexikon  Griech.  und  Rom.  Mythologie,  s.  v.  Kadmos. 


was  burned.  Eight  thousand  were  slain  in  the  conflict.^  The 
young  men  of  the  city  to  the  number  of  two  thousand  were 
crucified  on  the  seashore  by  order  of  Alexander,  as  a  reprisal  for 
the  death  of  the  Macedonian  prisoners.^  Thirty  thousand  were 
sold  into  slavery.^  The  Sidonians  on  board  of  their  vessels  gave 
shelter  to  many  refugees.'*  The  king,  Azemilcus,  and  the  chief 
magistrates,  with  the  Carthaginian  embassy,  took  refuge  in  the 
temple  of  Heracles  (Melkart)  and  their  lives  were  spared. 

Before  proceeding  to  Egypt,  Alexander  celebrated  his  success 
by  marching  into  the  city  with  soldiers  in  full  armor,  and  offering 
sacrifice  to  Heracles  in  the  temple  of  Melkart.  He  consecrated 
to  Heracles  the  battering  ram  which  made  the  first  breach  in 
the  wall,  and  a  Tyrian  ship  used  in  the  service  of  the  god,  which 
he  had  captured  while  the  siege  was  in  progress.  The  fleet 
defiled  before  the  temple  as  a  part  of  the  ceremony.  Then 
followed  gymnastic  games  and  a  torch  race.^ 

Alexander  then  left  the  city  which  was  half  burnt,  ruined, 
and  almost  depopulated.  The  blackened  forms  of  two  thousand 
crucified  soldiers  bore  ghastly  witness  to  the  completeness  of  the 
conquest.  The  siege  had  lasted  from  the  middle  of  January 
till  the  middle  of  July,  332  B.C.  The  city  did  not  lie  in  ruins 
long.  Colonists  were  imported  and  citizens  who  had  escaped 
returned.  The  energy  of  these  with  the  advantages  of  the  site, 
in  a  few  years  raised  the  city  to  wealth  and  leadership  again. 

Tyre  remained  submissive  to  Alexander  to  the  close  of  his 
life.  Phoenicians  accompanied  his  army  for  the  purpose  of 
trade,  and  rendered  aid  by  their  nautical  knowledge.^ 

1  Diodorus  says:  "More  than  7,000."     Arrian  says:  "About  8,000." 

2  Curtius,  IV,  4. 

*  According  to  Diodorus,  XVII,  46,  when  "most"  of  these  had  been  sent  to 
Carthage,  there  were  left  more  than  13,000. 

*  Curtius,  IV,  4,  makes  this  amount  to  the  incredible  number  of  15,000. 
5  Arrian,  II,  24. 

"Arrian,  VI,  1;  VII,  19. 



After  the  death  of  Alexander,  Syria  and  Phoenicia  fell  to 
Laomedon  and  Egypt  to  Ptolemy.^  Ptolemy  almost  at  once 
(320  B.C.)  began  the  conquest  of  Phoenicia.^  He  placed  garri- 
sons in  the  Phoenician  cities  and  held  possession  of  them  until 
315  B.C.  when  Antigonus  returning  from  successful  wars  in 
Babylonia,  easily  reduced  the  other  cities  of  Phoenicia  but  met 
with  firm  resistance  from  Tyre.  Only  eighteen  years  had  passed 
since  the  desolation  of  the  city  by  Alexander,  but  Tyre,  like 
modern  cities  that  have  met  with  great  calamities,  recovered 
her  powers  quickly  and  again  enjoyed  leadership  among  the 
Phoenician  cities.^  Though  the  city  was  connected  to  the 
mainland  by  a  mole,  it  was  extremely  difficult  of  assault  to  an 
enemy  who  did  not  command  the  sea.  Antigonus  blockaded  it 
by  land;  he  then  collected  eight  thousand  wood-cutters  to  cut 
cedars  and  cypresses  in  Lebanon.  These  were  brought  to  the  sea 
by  a  thousand  yoke  of  oxen  to  be  fashioned  into  fleets  at  Tripolis, 
Byblus  and  Sidon.  After  a  siege  of  fifteen  months  Tyre  was 
reduced  by  Antigonus.'*  His  son  Demetrius,  however,  was  de- 
feated (312  B.C.)  at  Gaza  by  Ptolemy  who  gained  possession  of 
Phoenicia.^  Almost  immediately  he  was  compelled  to  yield  it  to 
Antigonus  and  retire  into  Egypt.^  In  307  B.C.  Antigonus,  having 
defeated  the  fleet  of  Ptolemy  and  reduced  Cyprus,  made  an  un- 
successful attack  upon  Egypt :  and  on  his  retreat,  Ptolemy  again 
possessed  himself  of  the  Phoenician  cities  except  Sidon.     False 

1  Curtius,  X,  10;  Diodorus,  XVIII,  3. 

2  Justin,  XVIII,  4;  Strabo,  XVI,  757. 
2  Diodorus,  XVIII,  43. 
^Diodorus,  XIX,  61. 

6  Diodorus,  XIX,  86;  Plutarch,  Demetrius.  Vid.  Clough's  Edition,  Vol.  V, 
p.  100. 

« Diodorus,  XIX,  93. 
6  66 


news  of  a  victory  by  Antigonus  induced  him  to  withdraw  into 
Egypt.^  By  the  battle  of  Ipsus  (301  B.C.)  Antigonus  lost  his  life 
and  his  son  Demetrius  lost  the  throne  of  Syria.  Demetrius,  how- 
ever, still  retained  Cyprus,  Tyre  and  Sidon,  and  upon  the  demand 
of  Seleucus  that  these  be  surrendered  as  belonging  to  Syria  in  the 
division  of  territory  following  the  battle  of  Ipsus,  he  reinforced 
his  garrisons  in  Tyre  and  Sidon.^  During  the  war  between  them 
which  ended  (287  B.C.)  by  the  surrender  of  Demetrius,  Ptolemy 
seems  again  to  have  gained  control  of  Phoenicia,  to  hold  it  during 
his  life.^ 

It  seemed  ever  the  fate  of  the  Phoenician  cities  to  be  between 
an  upper  and  a  nether  millstone.  In  the  latter  part  of  the 
third  century  they  suffered  through  a  series  of  struggles  between 
the  Seleucidae  and  the  Ptolemies.  Ptolemy  Euergetes  marched 
an  army  into  Syria  in  the  beginning  of  his  reign  (246  B.C.)  and 
placed  an  Egyptian  garrison  in  Seleucia.  His  son  Ptolemy 
Philopater  still  held  this  city  when  Antiochus  the  Great  under- 
took (218  B.C.)  to  reconquer  Syria  and  Phoenicia.  He  took 
Seleucia  by  assault:  through  the  treachery  of  Theodotus,  Pto- 
lemy's lieutenant.  Tyre  and  Acco  fell  into  his  hands.  Nicolaus, 
who  commanded  the  Egyptian  fleet,  was  defeated  and  fled  to 
Sidon. ^  In  the  following  year  Antiochus  was  defeated  by 
Ptolemy  who  recovered  Phoenicia  which  he  held  until  his  death. 
In  203  B.C.  Antiochus  recovered  Syria  and  Palestine.  Egypt 
sent  forces  under  Scopas  but  they  were  defeated  and  compelled 
to  surrender.^  Thus  Phoenicia  (198  B.C.)  came  again  under  the 
power  of  Syria. 

The  sympathy  of  Tyre  was  with  Carthage  during  the  Punic 
wars.      When    Rome    had   conquered    and    a   situation   arose 

1  Diodorus,  XX,  113. 

2  Plutarch,  Demetrius.     Vid.  Clough's  Edition,  Vol.  V,  p.  129. 

'  From  the  year  275  B.C.  "the  people  of  Tyre  reckoned  their  era"  (Cooke, 
N.  S.  I.,  p.  47;  C.  I.  S.,  1,  7,  or  N.  S.  I.,  Nos.  9  and  10).  The  Tyrian  coins  of  the 
period  (312-275  B.C.),  stamped  with  native  symbols  of  the  sea  and  Greek 
and  Egyptian  symbols,  illustrate  the  commercial  character  of  the  city  and  her 
claims  to  rule  the  waves.     (Cooke,  N.  S.  I.,  p.  351.) 

^  Polybius,  Y,  40,  62,  68;  Josephus,  Antiq.,  I,  2. 

6  Polyb.,  XVI,  18, 19,  39;  Jerome  on  Daniel,  XI,  15. 


that  made  it  necessary  for  Hannibal  to  flee  for  his  h'fe,  he 
escaped  by  ship  to  Tyre  where  he  was  received  with  every 
mark  of  honor.  After  a  brief  stay,  he  sought  Antiochus 
whose  wavering  mind  was  finally  brought  to  a  decision  for  war 
against  Rome.^  Tyrian  ships  were  among  those  employed  by 
Antiochus  in  his  unsuccessful  battle  with  the  Romans  and 
Rhodians  at  Myonisius.^  It  is  probable  that  he  would  have 
conquered  Egypt  if  the  Romans  had  not  considered  that  the 
consolidation  of  the  two  great  kingdoms  was  contrary  to  Roman 
interests,  and  compelled  him  to  desist.  A  series  of  coins  with 
Phoenician  inscriptions  begins  with  him.  His  sons,  Seleucus 
and  Antiochus  Epiphanes  retained  possession  of  Phoenicia.^ 

The  commercial  prosperity  of  Tyre  had  not  suffered  greatly 
because  of  the  foundation  of  Alexandria.  Alexander  had  rebuilt 
Tyre  and  settled  a  new  population  there.  The  city  recovered 
from  the  ruins  of  the  siege  quickly;  and  if  she  suffered  any  loss 
because  of  the  commercial  rivalry  of  Alexandria,  it  was  more 
than  compensated  for  by  the  new  traffic  made  possible  by  Greek 
conquests  in  the  east,  and  the  greater  security  for  trade  that 
resulted.^  However,  when  Ptolemy  Philadelphus  constructed 
the  harbor  of  Berenice  on  the  Red  Sea,  and  made  a  road  with 
stations  and  watering  places  to  Coptos,  and  reopened  the  canal 
which  joined  the  Pelusiac  branch  of  the  Nile  to  the  Gulf  of  Suez,^ 
Tyre  suffered  a  great  and  permanent  loss,  for  the  traffic  of  the 
Red  Sea  and  the  Indian  Ocean,  which  had  hitherto  passed  from 
Eloth  and  Eziongeber  across  to  Rinocolura^  and  thence  to  all 
parts  of  the  Mediterranean  by  vessels  of  Tyre,  now  passed  by 
way  of  the  canal  to  Alexandria.  Thus  the  wealth  that  had 
formerly  flowed  to  Tyre  began  to  flow  to  Alexandria. 

In  the  reign  of  Antiochus  Epiphanes  (175-164  B.C.)  Tyre 

began  the  issuing  of  a  regular  series  of  autonomous  coins.     These 

coins  issued  from  the  local  mint  bore  two  legends,  one  Greek 

1  Pliny,  XXXIII,  48-49. 

^  Livy,  XXXVII,  30,  XXXV,  48;  Josephus,  Antiq.,  XII,  3. 

3  Kenrick,  Phoenicia,  p.  436. 

*  Justin,  XVIII,  4;  Strabo,  XVI,  757. 

5  Strabo,  XVI,  781. 

«  Strabo,  XVI,  815;  Pliny,  VI,  33. 


and  the  other  Phoenician:  they  acknowledged  suzerainty  and 
yet  claimed  a  measure  of  independence.^ 

Festive  assemblies  characteristic  of  the  Greeks,  in  which  the 
offering  of  sacrifices  combined  with  gymnastic  contests,  pageants 
etc.,  became  a  part  of  the  life  of  Tyre  which  was  now  a  semi- 
Greek  city.  Every  fifth  year  such  a  festival  was  held.^  It  is 
an  indication  of  the  royal  esteem,  that  Antiochus  attended  the 
festival  in  175  B.C.  He  paid  the  city  another  royal  visit  three 
years  later. 

Upon  this  occasion  Antiochus  had  made  arrangements  to 
hear  a  serious  complaint  against  the  Jewish  high-priest,  Menelaus, 
who  was  accused  of  having  plundered  the  Temple  of  a  number  of 
its  holy  vessels,  some  of  which  he  was  said  to  have  sold  to  the 
Tyrians.  The  Sanhedrin  sent  three  representatives  to  present 
accusations  before  the  king.  But  Menelaus  bribed  a  courtier 
named  Ptolemy,  son  of  Dorymenes,  to  intercede  with  the  king 
for  him ;  and  Ptolemy  was  successful,  since  justice  was  commonly 
bought  and  sold  at  the  Syrian  court.  Having  acquitted  the 
guilty,  Antiochus,  feeling  that  someone  must  be  punished,  con- 
demned to  death  the  three  public  officials  who  had  been  com- 
missioned to  make  the  complaint,  and  they  were  slain.  The 
people  of  Tyre  marked  their  sense  of  the  iniquity  of  the  sentence 
by  decreeing  that  the  bodies  be  given  honorable  burial.^  The 
independence  of  the  city  is  shown  by  this  brave  deed  and  by  the 
fact  that  the  king  did  not  dare  resent  it. 

A  little  later  (166-165  B.C.)  Phoenicians  appear  in  a  less  favor- 
able light.  Antiochus  gave  charge  to  Lysius,  one  of  his  generals, 
to  destroy  the  Jewish  state.  He  was  to  conquer  the  territory 
and  sell  the  whole  Jewish  population  into  slavery,  after  which  he 
was  to  repeople  the  land  with  strangers.'*  The  rate  per  head  was 
fixed  sufficiently  low  to  prove  very  attractive  to  slave  dealers. 
The  prospect  of  vast  profits  led  the  merchants  from  the  cities 
upon  the  sea-coast  to  accompany  the  army  of  Lysias.     They 

1  Rawlinson,  Phoenicia,  p.  238.     Vid.  p.  157  below. 

*  II  Maccabees,  IV,  18. 

» II  Maccabees,  IV,  32,  44-49. 

*  I  Mace,  III,  32-36. 


took  very  much  silver  and  gold,  and  came  into  the  Syrian  camp 
to  buy  the  Children  of  Israel.^  But  Judas  Maccabeus  completely 
defeated  the  Syrian  army  and  took  as  lawful  prize  a  large  part  of 
the  money  intended  for  the  purchase  of  slaves.^ 

In  the  year  83  B.C.,  Tyre  with  the  rest  of  Phoenicia  and 
Syria,  passed  into  the  control  of  Tigranes,  King  of  Armenia,  who 
held  the  mastery  for  fourteen  years.^  Then  by  the  victories  of 
Lucullus,  mastery  returned  for  a  short  time  to  the  Seleucidae. 

1 1  Mace,  III,  41. 

2 II  Mace,  IV,  23. 

3  Justin,  XL,  1;  Strabo,  XVI,  749. 




In  the  year  64  B.C.  Pompey  reduced  Syria,  and  the  Phoenician 
cities  became  a  part  of  the  Roman  Empire. 

The  estabh'shment  of  Roman  supremacy  brought  decided 
advantage  to  Tyre  after  conditions  became  settled.  Com- 
mercial prosperity  was  impossible  amidst  political  uncertainties 
and  unrest.  Rome  gave  stable  government  and  brought  order 
out  of  chaos.  Her  rule  was  not  inimical  to  commercial  activity. 
Pompey  had  recently  cleared  the  sea  of  the  bands  of  pirates 
who  had  been  infesting  the  eastern  part  of  the  Mediterranean. 
Tyre  could  now  devote  herself  to  manufacture  and  traffic  again. 

After  the  battle  of  Pharsalia,  Caecilius  Bassus  fled  to  Tyre 
and  induced  some  of  the  citizens  and  soldiers  to  join  him  in 
revolt  in  favor  of  Pompey  while  Caesar  was  engaged  in  his 
African  wars.  Sextus,  who  ruled  Syria  for  Caesar,  was  put  to 
death  and  Bassus  claimed  sovereignty.  In  the  struggle  which  pre- 
ceded the  battle  of  Philippi,  Cassius,  who  commanded  in  Syria,  set 
up  tyrants  over  all  Syria.^  He  made  Marion  (ID^rTIp /TO?)^  king 
of  Tyre.  Marion  was  soon  deposed  by  Anthony.  While  Anthony 
lingered  in  Egypt,  the  Parthians  under  Pacorus  and  Barzapharnes 
invaded  Phoenicia  and  overran  the  whole  country  except  Tyre, 
which  Pacorus  could  not  overcome.  The  political  status  of 
Tyre  at  this  time  is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  Anthony  under  the 
spell  of  Cleopatra  "gave  her  the  cities  which  were  within  the 
river  Eleutherus  (36  B.C.),  as  far  as  Egypt,  excepting  Tyre  and 
Sidon  which  he  knew  to  have  been  free  cities  from  their  ancestors,^ 
although  she  pressed  him  often  to  bestow  those  on  her  also." 

1  Josephus,  Wars  of  the  Jews,  I,  12;  Antiq.,  XIV,  12. 

2  Vid.  G.  Hoffman,  Zeitschr.  fur  Assyr.,  Vol.  XI,  pp.  240-241. 

3  Jos.,  Antiq.,  XV,  4. 



The  Tyrians  appear  to  have  shown  their  appreciation  of  his 
honor  of  their  ancient  Hberties  by  adherence  to  him,  for  when 
Augustus  came  to  the  east  (20  B.C.)  he  is  said  to  have  deprived 
both  cities  of  their  Hberties;^  however  the  punishment  was  prob- 
ably not  enforced,  for  Strabo,  writing  shortly  afterwards,  speaks 
of  Tyre  as  still  enjoying  its  independence.^  The  attitude  of 
Tyre  and  Sidon  toward  Herod  Agrippa  in  44  A.D.  implies  their 
continued  possession  of  modified  autonomy.^ 

The  entrance  of  Christianity  into  Tyre  was  an  event  which 
profoundly  affected  the  city's  history.  The  manner  of  its 
introduction  is  unknown.  The  fame  of  the  Prophet  of  Galilee 
reached  the  Phoenician  cities  early  in  his  ministry;  among  his 
followers  were  men  from  "about  Tyre  and  Sidon.""*  Jesus 
himself  visited  the  borders  of  these  cities.  It  was  near  Tyre 
that  he  healed  the  daughter  of  the  Syro-Phoenician  woman.  ^ 
Christians  among  those  "scattered  abroad"  after  the  death  of 
Stephen,  preached  in  Phoenicia.*  When  Paul  journeyed  by  sea 
from  Greece  and  Asia  Minor  on  his  last  visit  to  Jerusalem 
(A.D.  57?),  there  was  a  church  at  Tyre  whose  members  con- 
sisted of  men,  women  and  children.  Paul  tarried  with  them 
seven  days.  They  foresaw  his  troubles  and  besought  him  not 
to  go  up  to  Jerusalem.  When  he  departed,  they  accompanied 
him  to  the  harbor,  and  kneeling,  prayed  for  him.''  The  religion 
of  Jesus  took  firm  root  in  the  city  of  Melkart. 

In  the  year  44  A.D.  Herod  Agrippa  was  greatly  displeased 
with  the  people  of  Tyre  and  Sidon.^  It  is  clear  from  the  incident 
that  Tyre  was  enjoying  a  measure  of  autonomy  at  this  time, 
otherwise  as  Rawlinson  has  shown,^  his  quarrel  would  have  been 
a  quarrel  with  Rome.     The  incident  throws  light  upon  the  com- 

1  Dio  Cassius,  Historia  Romanae,  LIV,  7. 

2  Strabo,  XVI,  757. 
»  Acts,  XII,  20,  23. 

4  Mark,  III,  8. 

5  Mark,  VII,  24-31;  Matt.,  XV,  21-28. 

6  Acts,  XI,  19. 

^  Acts,  XXI,  4-8.  . 

8  Acts,  XII,  20-23. 

'  Phoenicia,  pp.  242-243. 


mercial  condition  of  these  cities.  Their  country  was  nurtured  by 
the  king's  country.  Their  eagerness  to  appease  him  was  due  to 
commercial  considerations.  When  Paul  sailed  to  Palestine  as 
related  above,  the  ship  passed  south  of  Cyprus  and  landed  at 
Tyre,  "for  there  the  ship  was  unable  to  unlade  her  burden." 
Then  upon  leaving  the  city  he  took  ship  for  Ptolemais  and 
Caesarea.^  And  so  the  commerce  of  Tyre  continued  to  thrive, 
although  Rome  had  made  herself  the  commercial  as  well  as  the 
political  capital  of  the  empire;  and  by  commerce  and  manu- 
facturing streams  of  wealth  continued  to  flow  to  the  Phoenician 

Early  in  the  Roman  period  began  the  only  era  of  literary 
activity  in  the  Phoenician  cities,  of  which  we  have  knowledge. 
Strabo  (B.C.  40-A.D.  18)  says  that  there  was  a  school  of  phi- 
losophy at  Sidon.  Two  early  Stoic  philosophers  of  Tyre  are 
mentioned,  Antipater,  who  was  intimate  with  the  younger 
Cato  and  known  to  Cicero,  and  Apollonius,  who  wrote  a  work 
about  Zeno  and  compiled  a  bibliography  of  Stoic  philosophy .^ 
Marinus  of  Tyre,  who  lived  in  the  early  part  of  the  second 
century  after  Christ,  must  be  reckoned  as  the  first  scientific 
geographer:  his  maps  were  mathematically  constructed  according 
to  longitude  and  latitude.^  Marinus  doubtless  used  the  vast 
amount  of  geographical  knowledge  accumulated  in  the  Phoe- 
nician cities.  He  employed  also  the  works  of  Greek  and  Roman 
travelers,^  and  may  have  availed  himself  of  the  astronomical 
data  of  Hipparchus  in  determining  latitude,  as  the  eclipse  of  the 
moon  that  appeared  at  Arbele  on  the  fifth  hour,  but  at  Carthage 
on  the  second.^  Ptolemy  of  Pelusium  regrets  that  there  had 
been  so  few  such  observations,  and  in  his  great  geographical 
work  sought  only  to  perfect  the  work  that  Marinus  had  done, 

1  Acts,  XXI,  4-8. 

2  Strabo,  XVI,  2.  The  Phoenicians  excelled  in  mathematics,  astronomy, 
and  nautical  science  but  irda-qs  rrjs  AXXtjs  (f>i\o(ro(f)las  evxoplav  iroXi)  irXelffr-qv  Xa^eTv 
itXTiv  iK  TO&ruiv  rwv  iroKiuv. 

'  Ptolemy,  Geography,  I,  7. 
*  Ibid.,  I,  6. 
5  Ibid.,  I,  4. 


following  him  excepting  when  he  found  an  error.^  The  rhe- 
torician, Paulus  of  Tyre,  was  a  man  of  much  ability.  He  went 
to  Rome  on  an  embassy  for  his  native  city,  and  so  pleased  the 
Emperor  Hadrian  by  an  oration  given  before  him  that  the 
Emperor  conferred  upon  Tyre  the  title  of  Metropolis,  thus 
oflScially  settling  the  ancient  controversy  between  Tyre  and 
Sidon.2  Maximus  of  Tyre,  who  flourished  160-190  A.D.  was  a 
Sophist  and  philosopher,  many  of  whose  works  are  extant. 
He  took  up  his  abode  at  Rome,  and  is  said  to  have  been  one  of 
the  instructors  of  Marcus  Aurelius. 

Near  the  close  of  the  second  century  the  church  at  Tyre  was 
active,  under  the  leadership  of  her  own  bishop,  Cassius,  in  the 
Paschal  controversy  that  then  stirred  Christendom.^ 

In  the  year  193  A.D.  Septimus  Severus  and  Pescennius  Niger 
were  rival  aspirants  to  the  throne  of  Rome.  Niger  commanded 
the  east  with  headquarters  at  Antioch.  The  Tyrians  and  people 
of  Laodicea,  perhaps  because  of  jealousy  of  their  neighbors, 
favored  Severus.  Upon  receiving  the  news  that  Niger  had 
failed  in  his  attempt  to  prevent  the  march  of  Severus  through 
the  passes  of  the  Taurus,  they  destroyed  the  insignia  and  boldly 
proclaimed  Severus.  Niger  sent  his  Mauritanian  troops  with 
orders  to  destroy  these  two  cities  and  put  their  inhabitants  to 
the  sword.  The  bloody  commission  was  executed.  Tyre  was 
plundered  and  burned  after  a  fearful  slaughter  of  her  citizens.^ 
Niger  was  defeated  in  the  battle  of  Issus  (194  A.D.)  and  was  slain 
soon  afterward  at  Antioch.  In  201  A.D.  Severus  recruited  the 
population  of  Tyre  from  the  third  legion  which  had  long  been 
in  Syria,  and  rewarded  the  city  for  its  loyalty  to  himself  by 
giving  it  the  title  of  Colony,^  with  the  Jus  Italicum.  The  city 
seems  to  have  recovered  quickly  from  its  disaster.  It  regained 
some  measure  of  its  former  wealth  and  splendor. 

1  Ptolemy,  Geography,  I,  18.     Vid.  also  Kenrick,  Phoenicia,  p.  441. 
^  Suidas  s.  v.  IIoOXos  Ti/ptos. 

'  Eusebius,  Church  History,  V,  25.    Vid.  Schaff  and  Wace,  Nicene  and 
Post-Nicene  Fathers,  New  York,  1890,  Vol.  I,  p.  244. 
^  Herodian,  III,  Chapter  III,  3-6. 
^  Vid.  coins  of  Severus,  p.  158  below. 


In  the  year  250-251  there  was  a  general  persecution  of  the 
Christians,  through  an  effort  of  the  Emperor  Decius  to  re- 
estabhsh  the  ancient  Roman  faith.  Origen  was  thrown  into 
prison,  and  suffered  the  torture  of  the  rack  and  the  iron  collar. 
By  his  fortitude  he  won  the  name  Adamantius,  but  when  the 
persecution  ceased,  he  came  forth  broken  in  health,  and  perhaps 
as  a  result  of  his  torture,  died  in  253.^  "For  largeness  of 
learning,  fruitfulness  of  work,  sweetness  of  character,  he  was  the 
glory  of  the  Church  in  his  day,  and  almost  every  great  man  in 
the  Eastern  Church  for  fifty  years  after  his  death  was  either  a 
personal  pupil  of  that  great  teacher,  or  somehow  an  instrument 
of  his  fashioning.  "2  When  the  Cathedral  of  Tyre  was  built,  the 
body  of  this  great  scholar  was  entombed  behind  its  altar,  accord- 
ing to  tradition. 

That  the  Church  at  Tyre  was  not  crushed  by  the  persecution 
under  Decius  is  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  among  the  "more 
illustrious"  bishops  of  the  east  when  peace  was  restored  (253 
A.D.)  was  Marinus,  Bishop  of  Tyre.^ 

Porphyry,  the  Neo-Platonist,  was  a  native  of  Tyre.  He 
attended  the  teaching  of  Origen  there.  Porphyry's^  Phoenician 
name  was  Malchus,  T|/D,  king,  but  because  of  his  desire  to 
ingratiate  himself  with  Greeks  and  Romans,  and  perhaps  to 
hide  his  Asiatic  origin,  he  adopted  the  name  Porphyrins,  purple 
as  the  royal  color,  being  a  fair  equivalent  for  Malchus.  He  was  a 
tireless  student  not  only  in  the  east  but  at  Athens  under  Longinus. 
He  went  to  Rome  in  262  A.D.  and  joined  the  Neo-Platonist 
school  of  Plotinus.  In  him  Neo-Platonism  reached  its  highest 
ethical  teaching.^  He  was  a  great  opponent  of  Christianity. 
He  wrote  a  life  of  Pythagoras,  in  which  he  represents  Pythagoras 

1  Eusebius,  Church  History,  VI,  39,  Schaff  and  Wace  Edition,  Nicene  and 
Post-Nicene  Fathers,  Vol.  I,  p.  281;  Jerome,  Lives  of  Illustrious  Men,  54. 
Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  374. 

2  Waterman,  The  Fost-ApostoUc  Age  (N.  Y.,  1898),  p.  359. 

2  Eusebius,  VII,  5.  Schaff  and  Wace  Edition,  Nicene  and  Post-Nicene 
Fathers,  Vol.  I,  p.  294. 

*  The  name  Uop<f)(ipios  was  first  given  him  by  his  teacher  when  he  was  a 
pupil  of  Ammonius  at  Alexandria.    Vid.  Zimmem,  Porph.  to  Marcella,  p.  32  ff. 

*  Zimmern,  Porph.  to  Marcella,  p.  32  ff. 


as  having  wrought  great  miracles,  and  as  having  given  such  power 
to  his  favorite  followers.  The  work  was  intended  to  discredit 
the  doctrine  of  Christ's  miracles.  He  wrote  an  attack  on 
Christian  doctrines  that  ran  to  twenty-one  books.  This  last 
work  was  answered  by  Methodius,  Bishop  of  Tyre,  but  did  much 
to  check  the  advance  of  Christianity  among  the  educated  classes. 

Methodius,  who  was  Bishop  of  Tyre  in  267,  "wrote  books 
against  Porphyry,  in  a  polished  and  logical  style;  also  a  Banquet 
of  the  Ten  Virgins,  an  excellent  work  on  the  Resurrection, 
Against  Origen"  and  his  commentaries.  He  afterward  died  as  a 
martyr  in  Chalcis  in  Greece.^ 

In  the  midst  of  intellectual  strife  and  religious  unrest.  Tyre 
continued  to  prosper  because  of  her  manufacturing  and  com- 
merce. Rome  seems  to  have  assumed  control  of  the  purple 
dyeing  industries  of  the  city.  One  Dorotheus,  who  was  learned 
in  Greek  and  Hebrew  wisdom,  having  found  favor  with  Emperor 
Diocletian,  was  honored  by  being  placed  over  the  purple  dye 
works  at  Tyre.^ 

The  city  was  the  scene  of  bloody  persecutions  in  the  reign  of 
Diocletian  and  Maximinus.  Although  Christianity  had  num- 
bered great  leaders  among  its  adherents  at  Tyre,  the  ancient 
faith  of  the  city  was  far  from  being  dead.  That  the  adherents 
of  the  older  cult  had  appealed  to  the  Roman  authority  against 
the  Christians,  is  clear  from  the  edict  of  Maximinus,  which  was 
posted  on  a  pillar  at  Tyre.^     The  edict  in  part  was  as  follows : 

"  Behold,  therefore  your  city  .  .  .  when  it  perceived  that  the  adherents 
of  that  execrable  vanity  were  again  beginning  to  spread  .  .  .  immediately 
resorted  to  our  piety  .  .  .  asking  some  remedy  and  aid.  It  is  evident 
that  the  gods  have  given  you  this  saving  mind  on  account  of  your  faith 
and  piety.  Accordingly,  that  supreme  and  mightiest  Jove  who  presides 
over  your  illustrious  city,  who  preserves  your  ancestral  gods,  your  wives 
and  children,  your  hearths  and  homes  from  every  destructive  pest,  has 

1  Jerome,  Lives  of  Illustrious  Men,  83.  Vid.  Schaflf  and  Wace  Ed.,  Nicene 
and  Post-Nicene  Fathers,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  378.  For  writings  of  Methodius  in 
English  translation  vid.  Roberts  and  Donaldson,  Ante-Nicene  Fathers,  Vol. 
VI,  pp.  309-412. 

2  Eusebius,  Church  History,  VII,  32.  Vid.  Schaff  and  Wace,  Nicene  and 
Post-Nicene  Fathers,  Vol.  I,  p.  317. 

» Ibid.,  IX,  7.     Vid.  ibid.,  p.  360. 


infused  into  your  soul  this  wholesome  resolve.  .  .  .  Let  as  many  as 
have  abandoned  that  bUnd  error  .  .  .  rejoice.  .  .  .  But  if  they  still 
persist  in  their  execrable  vanity,  let  them  as  you  have  desired,  be  driven 
far  away  from  your  city  and  territory." 

Detailed  accounts  are  given  of  the  martyrdom  of  Theodosia,  a 
Tyrian  maiden,  at  Caesarea,^  and  of  five  Egyptian  Christians, 
who  were  tortured  and  slain  in  the  arena  at  Tyre.^  The  Church 
suffered  very  greatly.  Tyrannion,  the  Bishop,  was  drowned  in 
the  depth  of  the  sea.^ 

Late  in  the  year  312  A.D.  after  Constantine's  victory  over 
Maxentius,  the  Edict  of  Milan  was  issued  by  Constantine  and 
Licinius,  announcing  religious  liberty  for  all  and  the  right  of 
"  every  man  to  perform  his  religious  duties  according  to  his  own 
choice."^  With  the  edict  there  seems  to  have  been  sent  forth  a 
letter  of  instructions  to  the  local  authorities  as  to  the  carrying 
out  of  its  provisions.  Such  a  letter  addressed  to  Anulinus, 
Proconsul  of  Africa,  has  come  down  to  us.  Among  its  provisions 
it  orders  that  restoration  be  made  to  the  Christian  churches  of 
all  that  had  been  taken  away  from  them  in  the  times  of  perse- 
cution, "whether  gardens,  buildings,  or  whatever  they  might  be."^ 
It  was  immediately  following  the  issuing  of  this  edict  that  the 
work  of  building  the  temple  of  Tyre  began. 

By  the  zeal  of  Paulinus,  Bishop  of  Tyre,  this  temple  was 
built.  It  was  the  most  splendid  in  Phoenicia.  In  the  presence 
of  a  brilliant  company,  Eusebius  delivered  the  dedicatory  sermon, 
which  contains  a  full  description  of  the  temple  and  an  account  of 
its  erection.^  The  site  chosen  was  that  of  a  church  which  had 
been  destroyed  and  its  location  desecrated  in  time  of  persecution. 
Eusebius'  description  of  the  Temple  is  of  great  value  as  being  the 
oldest  detailed  account  that  we  have  of  a  Christian  basilica. 
Enclosing  a  much  larger  space,  a  wall  surrounded  the  temple 

1  Eusebius,  Martyrs  of  Palestine,  VII.  Vid.  Schaff  and  Wace,  Nicene  and 
Post-Nicene  Fathers,  Vol.  I,  p.  245. 

2  Eusebius,  Church  History,  VIII,  7.  Vid.  ibid.,  p.  328.  It  is  evident  that 
gladiatorial  spectacles  were  not  uncommon  at  Tyre  at  this  time. 

3  Eusebius,  Church  History,  VIII,  13.     Vid.  ibid.,  p.  333. 
*  Eusebius,  Church  History,  X,  4.     Vid.  ibid.,  p.  379. 

<*  Eusebius,  Church  History,  X,  5.     Vid.  ibid.,  p.  379. 

« Eusebius,  Church  History,  X,  4.     Vid.  ibid.,  pp.  370-379. 


area  and  served  as  a  bulwark.  At  the  eastern  end  of  the  temple 
was  a  lofty  vestibule.  Between  the  temple  and  the  outer 
entrance,  and  surrounded  by  four  transverse  cloisters,  was  a 
quadrangular  space  with  pillars  rising  on  every  side,  which  was 
open  to  sun  and  sky.  Here  were  a  fountain,  and  vessels  of 
purification.  Passing  through  this,  one  came  to  the  entrance, 
which  consisted  of  three  doors,  also  facing  the  east.  The  middle 
door,  larger  than  the  other  two,  was  adorned  with  plates  of 
bronze.  In  the  same  way  were  arranged  vestibules  for  the 
corridors  on  each  side  of  the  temple.  All  were  adorned  with 
fine  wood  carving.  The  temple  proper  was  constructed  and 
furnished  with  very  costly  materials.  Its  "length,  and  breadth, 
and  splendor,  and  majesty,  surpassing  description,  the  brilliant 
appearance  of  the  work,  its  lofty  pinnacles  reaching  to  the 
heavens,  and  the  costly  cedars  of  Lebanon  above  them"  are 
alluded  to.  Within  were  thrones  for  those  who  presided  and 
seats  throughout  the  building.  The  altar,  enclosed  with  wooden 
latticework  elaborately  carved  "presented  a  wonderful  sight." 
The  pavement  was  of  marble  of  many  varieties.  Without  the 
temple  on  either  side  were  provided  spacious  buildings  which 
communicated  with  the  entrances  to  the  interior  structure. 

Paulinus  was  afterwards  made  bishop  of  Antioch.^  He  was 
succeeded  in  the  episcopate  of  Tyre  by  Zeno.^ 

In  335  A.D.,  under  Constantine,  Tyre  was  chosen  as  the  seat 
of  a  Church  council,  the  purpose  of  which  was  to  restore  peace 
and  order  to  the  Christian  Church,  which  was  being  greatly 
disturbed  through  acrimonious  theological  controversy.  The 
council  was  so  far  from  accomplishing  its  purpose  that  Roman 
soldiers  sent  to  maintain  order  were  compelled  to  restrain  the 
council  itself  from  rioting  and  violence.  Charges  of  cruelty, 
impiety,  and  the  use  of  magical  arts  were  brought  against 
Athanasius.  As  the  bishops  assembled  were  chiefly  Arians,  he 
was  condemned  and  deprived  of  his  see.  The  condemnation  was 
afterwards  reversed,  and  the  Synod  of  Tyre  came  to  be  regarded 

1  Eusebius,  Contra  Marcellum,  I,  4.  Vid.  Schaflf  and  Wace,  Nicene  and 
Post-Nicene  Fathers,  Vol.  I,  p.  369. 

2  Zozomen,  Church  History,  VI,  12.     Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  II,  p.  353. 


as  unorthodox.  The  record  of  the  proceedings  of  this  council 
forms  one  of  the  most  disgraceful  chapters  in  the  history  of  the 
Christian  Church.^ 

It  is  at  this  point  that  we  begin  to  get  our  first  faint  traces  of 
light  from  another  source.  The  Bordeaux  Pilgrim  (333  A.D.) 
became  the  first  of  a  vast  number  of  pilgrims  from  Europe  to  the 
Holy  Land.  His  itinerary  brought  him  to  Tyre  and  he  mentions 
the  village  of  Alexandroschene  near  Palaetyrus,^  but  has  left  no 
record  concerning  the  city.^  In  382  A.D.  the  Holy  Pilgrim 
Paula,  whose  story  is  written  by  Jerome,  passed  by  Tyre.  She 
was  a  Roman  matron  of  great  wealth  and  social  standing:  her 
observations  would  have  been  of  value,  but  she  also  has  left  no 
record,  merely  mentioning  the  city.^ 

Tyre  was  in  a  flourishing  condition  in  the  days  of  Jerome 
(340-420).  He  finds  difficulty  in  reconciling  Ezekiel's  prophecy 
of  the  destruction  of  Tyre  with  the  condition  of  the  city  in  his 
own  time.  Speaking  of  its  noble  port  that  received  ships  coming 
from  the  deep,  and  the  fact  that  the  city  was  the  mart  of 
many  islands,  he  adds:  "quod  quidem  usque  hodie  perseverat, 
ut  omnium  propemodum  gentium  in  ilia  exerceantur  com- 

Tyre  was  the  oflBcial  ecclesiastical  metropolis  of  Phoenicia® 
with  Photius  as  bishop  in  451,  and  had  been  for  a  long  time. 
The  Council  of  Chalcedon  confirmed  the  claim  of  Tyre  and 
declared  void  the  effort  of  the  bishop  of  Beirut  to  divide  the 

1  Athanasius,  Paschal  Letters,  VIII,  Contra  Arianos,  VI,  71-86.  Vid. 
Schaff  andWace.  Nicene  and  Post-Nicene  Fathers,  Vol.  IV,  137-145.  Socrates 
Scholasticus,  Church  History,  I,  28-32.  Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  II,  pp.  30-31.  Theo- 
doret.  Church  History,  I,  26-28.     Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  62-63. 

^  "Alexandroschene  (modern  Iskanderuneh)  was  named  in  honor  of 
Alexander  Severus  in  whose  reign  the  road  was  constructed.  At  a  later  time 
it  was  attributed  to  Alexander  the  Great."  Bensinger,  Baedeker's  Palestine 
and  Syria  (1912)  p.  271. 

'  Vid.  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Texts,  I,  p.  16.  These  texts  are  published  by 
■  the  Palestine  Pilgrims'  Texts  Society,  and  are  cited,  P.  P.  T.,  below. 

^  Vid.  ibid.,  II,  p.  4. 

^  Jerome,  Commentary  on  Ezekiel,  XXVII,  1-2. 

« Descriptio  Parrochia  lerusalem  (c.  460  A.D.)  Publications,  Socidt^  de 
rOrient  Latin;  Serie  Geog.,  Vol.  I,  331. 


•province.^  Antoninus  Martyr  made  a  pilgrimage  (570  A.D.?) 
to  the  Holy  Land,  and  made  record  of  "The  Holy  Places  Visited." 
He  writes:  "The  city  of  Tyre  contains  influential  men;  the  life 
there  is  very  wicked,  the  luxury  is  such  as  cannot  be  described. 
There  are  public  brothels.  Silk  and  other  kinds  of  cloth  are 

A  dark  story  has  come  down  to  us  from  the  period  of  the 
wars  of  the  years  604-628  between  the  Persians  under  Khusrau 
n  (Chosroes)  and  the  Byzantines  under  Phocas,  and,  after  him, 
Heraclius.^  During  these  years  Tyre  found  herself  in  her  old 
place  between  the  upper  and  nether  millstone.  Though  her 
prosperity  depended  upon  peace  and  order,  there  was  war  and 
anarchy  all  around  her.  An  illustration  of  these  anarchistic 
conditions  which  doubtless  prepared  the  way  for  the  amazingly 
swift  conquests  of  Islam  in  the  years  closely  following  is  pre- 
served in  the  Annals  of  Eutychus.*    The  story  is  as  follows : 

"There  were  in  Tyre  four  thousand  Jews ;  these  wrote  to  all  the  Jews  who 
were  at  Jerusalem,  Cyprus,  Damascus,  the  hill  country  of  Galilee  and  Tibe- 
rias, bidding  them  assemble  themselves  together  on  the  night  of  the  Christian 
Passover,  slay  all  the  Christians  in  Tyre,  and  then  set  out  for  Jerusalem, 
make  away  with  every  one  whom  they  met  and  seize  the  city.  When  the 
plot  came  to  the  ears  of  the  nobleman  who  was  governor  of  Tyre,  and  of 
the  inhabitants  of  that  city,  they  laid  hold  upon  all  the  Jews  therein, 
bound  them  with  chains  of  iron  and  cast  them  into  prison.  They  closed 
the  gates  of  the  city  and  set  up  catapults  and  engines  of  war  near  them. 
So  when  the  night  of  the  Christian  Passover  came,  the  Jews  from  all  the 
country  round  about  gathered  together  at  Tyre  according  as  the  Jews  of 
Tyre  had  bidden  them  to  do,  and  as  they  had  agreed  among  themselves. 
But  the  people  of  Tyre  repulsed  them,  numbering  more  than  twenty-six 
thousand  men.  Howbeit  the  Jews  destroyed  all  the  churches  at  Tyre 
which  stood  without  the  citadel.  But  whensoever  they  destroyed  any 
church,  the  inhabitants  of  Tyre  took  a  hundred  of  the  Jews  whom  they 
held  captive,  set  them  upon  the  top  of  the  citadel,  cut  off  their  heads 

1  Canon  XII  and  XXVIII.  Vid.  Schaff  and  Wace,  Nicene  and  Post- 
Nicene  Fathers,  Vol.  XIV,  pp.  277,  290,  291. 

2  P.  P.  T.,  II,  3;  Pub.  Soc.  Orient  Latin;  Serie  Geog.,  I,  362. 

'  For  an  account  of  these  wars,  see  Theophanes  (751-818  A.D.),  Chrono- 
graphia,  in  loco. 

^  Vid.  Palest.  Pilg.  Text,  X,  39-40.  Eutychus,  876-939  A.D.,  was  Patriarch 
of  Alexandria. 


there,  and  cast  them  over  the  walls.  In  this  manner  they  slew  two 
thousand  men.  Then  a  tumult  arose  among  the  Jews  themselves  and 
they  betook  themselves  to  flight.  The  Tyrians  sallied  out  and  followed 
up  their  retreat,  making  a  great  slaughter  among  them." 

Another  dark  incident  in  which  Tyre  was  involved  is  recorded 
by  the  same  author.  When  Heraclius  came  into  possession  of 
Palestine,  629  A.D.,  the  monks  of  Jerusalem  appealed  to  him 
for  the  destruction  of  the  Jews  because  of  their  alleged  part  with 
the  Persians  in  the  destruction  of  churches  and  the  slaughter  of 
Christians  at  Tyre.^  It  is  evident  therefore  that  Tyre  had 
resisted  the  attack  of  the  Persian  arms,  and  had  suffered  sorely 
as  a  result. 

A  military  power  inspired  with  a  spirit  of  conquest  appeared 
with  the  birth  of  Islam.  Before  this  new  military  power  fired 
with  a  frenzy  of  religious  zeal,  city  after  city  and  province  after 
province  fell  with  astonishing  rapidity.  The  Byzantine  Emperor 
Heraclius  saw  that  his  rich  Syrian  possessions  were  in  grave  danger 
of  being  taken  from  him.  He  mustered  a  large  army  to  drive  back 
the  Moslems  but  in  the  decisive  battle  of  Yarmuk,  September, 
634,  his  army  was  crushed  and  the  issue  was  practically  fixed. ^ 

Late  in  the  summer  of  635  A.D.  Damascus  fell.  The  province 
of  the  Jordan  to  which  Tyre  belonged  was  in  command  of 
Shorabil  (Shurahbil).^  He  "reduced  Tyre  together  with  Saffuri- 
yah."^  But  Christian  infiuence  and  power  lingered  on  the  coast. 
The  Greeks  for  a  time  had  command  of  the  sea.  Therefore  once 
and  again  from  the  seaward,  Byzantine  arms  retook  what  the 
Arabs  had  gained.^  Unfortunately  we  do  not  have  full  informa- 
tion about  Tyre  in  these  unsettled  times.  Almost  at  once  the 
city  fell  again  into  the  hands  of  the  Greeks  if  we  may  credit  the 
following  account  from  the  writings  attributed  to  Al-Wakidi. 

1  Vid.  Palest.  Pilg.  Text,  X,  39^0. 

^  Vid.  Theophanes,  Chronographia,  in  loco;  Wellhausen,  Art.  on  Moham- 
medanism, Encyclopedia  Britannica  (9th  ed.) ;  A.  J.  Dunn,  The  Rule  of  Islam, 
p.  81.     Muu-,  The  Caliphate,  p.  74. 

'  Muir,  The  Caliphate,  Its  Rise,  Decline  and  Fall,  p.  104. 

<  Al-Balddhuri  (Futuh-ul-Bulddn,  ed.  M.  de  Geoje),  p.  116.  For  this  and 
other  citations  to  the  work  of  this  Arabic  author  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  P.  K. 
Hitti  whose  translation  of  the  writings  of  Al-Bal&dhuri  is  soon  to  appear. 

«  Muir,  The  Caliphate,  Its  Rise,  Decline  and  Fall,  p.  106. 


After  the  fall  of  Jerusalem,  Omar  commissioned  Yazid  Ibn 
Abu  Sufyan  to  subdue  Palestine  and  the  maritime  cities,  while 
Abu  Obeidah  was  commissioned  to  conquer  northern  Syria. 
Obeidah  besieged  Aleppo  but  met  with  long  and  stubborn  resist- 
ance. When  the  Moslem  hosts,  by  the  stratagem  of  one  named 
Damas,  captured  Aleppo,  Yukenah,  commander  of  the  city, 
was  one  of  the  first  to  embrace  Islam. 

Soon  after  the  fall  of  Antioch,  Yukenah,  the  fame  of  whose 
brave  defense  of  Aleppo  was  known,  but  whose  apostasy  was 
not  known,  came  to  Tripolis.  With  his  followers  he  was  cordially 
welcomed  without  suspicion.  At  a  favorable  opportunity  he 
and  his  men  rose  up  and  subdued  the  city.  They  sent  news  of 
their  success  to  Abu  Obeidah,  while  for  the  purpose  of  deception 
the  standards  of  the  cross  were  still  permitted  to  wave  over  the 
battlements  of  Tripolis.  Fifty  ships  ladened  with  provisions  from 
Cyprus  and  Crete  anchored  off  Tripolis;  and  before  suspicions 
were  aroused  these  fell  into  the  hands  of  Yukenah  and  his 
followers.  Forces  sent  by  Abu  Obeidah  having  received  charge 
of  Tripolis,  Yukenah  with  the  fleet  still  flying  the  Christian  flag, 
sailed  to  Tyre.  The  Tyrians  flocked  to  the  seaside  with  accla- 
mations of  joy  to  welcome  the  needed  succor.  Yukenah,  with 
nine  hundred  men,  landed  and  was  welcomed  as  a  deliverer. 
But  one  of  his  men  betrayed  the  plot,  and  he  and  his  followers 
were  imprisoned  in  the  citadel.  Yezid  Ibn  Abu  Sufyan,  with  a 
small  force,  rapidly  advanced  to  Tyre  in  hope  of  finding  the 
crescent  already  waving  over  the  city's  walls.  Yukenah  suc- 
ceeded in  persuading  Basil,  the  officer  in  charge  of  the  prisoners, 
to  join  in  a  plot  to  deliver  the  city  into  the  hands  of  Abu  Sufyan. 
While  the  troops  of  Tyre  were  contending  against  the  forces  of 
Abu  Sufyan,  in  frequent  sallies  and  skirmishes,  Basil  with  Yu- 
kenah and  his  followers  rose  against  the  city.  The  cry  'Allah 
Akbar'  resounded  through  the  streets  of  Tyre.  The  cross  was 
torn  from  the  standard  and  Tyre  was  under  the  sway  of  Islam. ^ 

1  This  account  of  the  entrance  of  Islam  into  Tyre  is  from  the  record  of  the 
Syrian  wars,  commonly  accredited  to  Al-Wakidi  (Abu  'Abd  Allah  Muhammed 
Ibn  'Omar  Al-Wa^idi,  died  207  A.H.),  published  in  Simon  Ockley's  History 



The  speedy  conquest  of  such  cities  as  Tyre  was  accomplished 
as  much  by  the  terms  of  surrender  offered  as  by  the  frenzied 
valor  of  the  Saracen  soldiery.  Islam  offered  protection  for  all, 
and  this  was  vastly  better  than  the  political  chaos  prevailing. 
It  offered  toleration  for  all,  and  this  was  vastly  better  than  the 
theological  strife,  and  the  bitter  persecutions,  and  the  religious 
civil  warfare  which  it  came  to  replace.  The  adherents  of  the 
older  faiths  naturally  preferred  such  terms  under  Islam  rather 
than  the  conditions  under  the  so-called  Christian  rule  of  Con- 
stantinople. That  the  new  order  offered  more  favorable  con- 
ditions for  industry  and  commerce  would  not  be  overlooked  by 
Tyre.  The  Christians  themselves  did  not  find  the  conditions 
unbearable.  Their  churches  were  not  pulled  down.  That  they 
were  not  allowed  to  build  new  ones  was  at  first  no  hardship,  for 
the  turning  of  large  numbers  to  the  new  faith  made  the  churches 
already  built  amply  sufficient  to  accommodate  the  population 
that  adhered  to  Christianity.  Their  chief  disadvantages, 
together  with  all  the  people  who  did  not  embrace  Islam,  was  that 
they  were  not  permitted  to  bear  arms,  and  that  they  were 
required  to  pay  the  poll-tax.  It  was  true  of  Tyre  as  of  the  other 
cities  of  Syria  that  "the  lapse  of  the  masses  from  Christendom 
to  Islam,  which  took  place  during  the  first  century  after  the 
conquest  is  only  to  be  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  .  .  .  they 
changed  their  creed  in  order  to  acquire  the  rights  and  privileges 
of  Moslem  citizens.  In  no  case  were  they  compelled  to  do  so: 
on  the  contrary,  the  Omayyad  Caliphs  saw  with  displeasure  the 
diminishing  proceeds  of  the  poll-tax  derived  from  their  Christian 

The  hamiliations  to  which  Jews  and  Christians  were  subjected 
under  Moslem  rule  were  introduced  gradually.  But  under  the 
rule  of  Mu'awiyah  at  Damascus  as  Caliph  of  all  Islam  (40-60 
A.H.),  the  so-called  Code  of  Omar  was  fully  enforced.  The 
clothing  of  non-Moslems  must  be  distinguished  by  a  stripe  of 

of  the  Saracens,  London,  1848,  pp.  223  ff.,  250  ff.     Vid.  also  F.  A.  Neal,  Islam- 
ism:  Its  Rise  and  Progress,  Vol.  I,  p.  58  ff. 

1  Vid.  J.  Wellhausen,  article  on  Mohammedanism,  in  the  Encyclopedia 
Britannica  (9th  ed.). 


yellow.  They  must  not  ride  on  horse-back.  If  they  rode  on 
mule  or  ass,  the  stirrups  and  knobs  of  the  saddle  must  be  of  wood. 
Their  graves  must  be  level  with  the  ground.  Their  children 
must  not  be  taught  by  Moslem  masters.  They  must  not 
aspire  to  any  oflSce  of  trust  or  authority.  They  must  erect  no 
new  places  of  worship,  display  no  cross  outside  their  buildings, 
ring  no  church  bell,  and  grant  to  any  Moslem  free  entry  at 
pleasure  into  all  holy  places.^ 

Mu'awiyah  realized  the  importance  of  the  sea-coast  cities. 
"In  the  year  42  A.H.  he  transplanted  a  band  of  Persians  from 
Ba'albek,  Hims  and  Antioch  to  the  sea-coast  of  the  province  of 
the  Jurdan,"  i.  e.,  Tyre,  Acre,  and  elsewhere.^ 

The  industrial  rivalry  of  Acre  and  Tyre  is  shown  by  the 
following  incident.  "A  descendent  of  Abu-Mu'ait  who  lived 
in  Acre,  ran  mills  and  workshops,  Hisham  Ibn  'Abd-ul-Malik 
wanted  him  to  sell  them  to  him,  but  the  man  refused.  Hisham 
therefore  moved  the  industry  to  Tyre,  where  he  ran  an  inn  and 

When  Mu'awiyah  launched  his  successful  fleet  for  conquest 
in  647  A.D.,  he  probably  sailed  from  Tyre.^  Victories  were  won 
against  Cyprus,  Malta,  and  Crete.  Mti'awiyah  captured  Rhodes, 
broke  up  the  famous  Colossus,  and  carried  its  fragments  off  to 
Alexandria.  After  ravaging  the  coast  of  Asia  Minor  he  returned 
to  Tyre  with  immense  treasures  and  many  slaves, 

"When  'Abd-ul-Malik  Ibn  Merwan,  64-65  A.H.,  was  established 
in  the  Caliphate,  he  repaired  Kaisariyah  (Caesarea),  rebuilt  its 
mosque,  and  manned  it  with  a  garrison.  He  likewise  rebuilt 
Tyre  and  Outer-Acre,  which  had  suffered  the  same  fate  as 
Kaisariyah";  i.  e.  destruction  by  the  Greeks  in  the  days  of 

1  Muir,  The  Caliphate,  Its  Rise,  Decline  and  Fall,  p.  147. 

^Baladhuri  (Futuh-ul-Buldan,  ed.  M.  de  Geoje),  p.  117.  Vid.  note  4, 
p.  80  above. 

"  Ibid. 

*  F.  A.  Neale,  Islamism:  Its  Rise  and  Progress,  Vol.  I,  p.  115  ff.  Al-Balad- 
huri  (Futuh-ul-Buldan,  ed.  M.  de  Geoji),  p.  117.     Vid.  note  4,  p.  80  above. 

^Baladhuri  (Futuh-ul-Buldan,  ed.  M.  de  Geoje),  p.  117.  Vid.  note  4, 
p.  80  above. 


Under  Mohammedan  rule  the  conquered  territory  was  divided 
into  "Junds"  or  mihtary  districts.  Ibn  al-Fakih  (c.  903  A.D.) 
names  Tyre  as  a  city  of  the  Jordan  district  of  which  Tiberias 
was  capital.^  The  same  historian  states  that  Tyre  was  one  of 
the  coast  cities  of  Damascus.  He  explains  the  seeming  contra- 
diction by  the  fact  that  while  the  mosque  belonged  to  Damascus, 
the  land  tax  belonged  to  the  Jordan  province.^ 

Bishop  Arculf  visited  Palestine  (c.  700  A.D.).  He  dictated  the 
story  of  his  travels  to  Adamnan.  Of  Tyre  he  says:  "Tyre,  the 
metropolis  of  the  province  of  Phoenicia,  .  .  .  This  city  was  very 
beautiful  and  very  noble. "^ 

It  is  stated  in  the  Travels  of  WilUbald  (c.  724  A.D.) : 

"Nobody  is  allowed  to  pass  this  place  (a  tower  on  Ras  al-Abiad)  with- 
out letters  of  safe  conduct.  Those  who  are  without  such  letters  are  seized 
and  sent  to  Tyre.  ...  So  when  they  (Willibald  and  companions)  came 
to  Tyre,  the  citizens  stopped  them,  and  examined  their  burdens  to  see  if 
they  had  anythmg  concealed:  for  if  they  had  found  anything,  they  would 
immediately  have  them  put  to  death.  .  .  .  They  remained  here  some 
days  waiting  for  a  ship  for  Constantinople."^ 

"A  city  of  the  Jordan  province,"  writes  Ya'kubi  in  891  A.D. 
"It  is  the  chief  town  of  the  coast  districts,  and  contains  the 
arsenal.  From  here  sail  the  Sultan's  ships  on  the  expeditions 
against  the  Greeks.     It  is  a  beautiful  place  and  fortified."^ 

"Sur  in  the  Jordan  province  is  one  of  the  most  strongly  forti- 
fied of  the  sea-coast  towns.  It  is  populous  and  its  lands  are 
fertile,"  write  Arab  historians  in  951  and  978  A.D.® 

Mukaddasi  in  985  wrote:  • 

"Tyre  is  a  fortified  town  on  the  sea,  or  rather  in  the  sea,  for  you  enter 
the  town  through  one  gate  only,  over  a  bridge,  and  the  sea  lies  all  round 
it.    The  city  consists  of  two  quarters:  the  first  being  built  on  terra 

^  I.  F.,  116,  LeStrange,  Palestine  Under  the  Moslems,  p.  30. 

*  I.  F.,  105,  LeStrange,  Palestine  Under  the  Moslems,  p.  32. 

3  Vid.  Palest.  Pilg.  Text,  III,  47;  Thomas  Wright,  Early  Travels  in  Pales- 
tine (London,  1848),  p.  10. 

^  Wright,  Early  Travels  in  Palestine,  p.  20. 

'  Ya'k^bl,  1 15.  Vid.  LeStrange,  Palestine  Under  the  Moslems,  p.  342.  Vid. 
also  P.  P.  T.,  Ill,  3,  p.  11. 

« Istakhri,  59,  Ibn  Haukal,  114.     Vid.  LeStrange,  Pal.  under  Mos.,  p.  342. 


firma:  while  the  second,  beyond  this,  is  an  area  enclosed  by  triple  walls 
with  no  earth  appearing,  for  the  walls  rise  out  of  the  sea.  Into  this  harbor 
the  ships  come  every  night,  and  then  a  chain  is  drawn  across,  whereby 
the  Greeks  are  prevented  from  molesting  them.  Water  is  brought  into 
the  town  by  means  of  a  vaulted  aqueduct.  Tyre  is  a  beautiful  and 
pleasant  city.     Many  artificers  dwell  here  and  ply  their  special  trades."^ 

This  writer  gives  an  account  of  the  commerce  of  Syria  in 
the  tenth  century,  in  which  he  outlines  the  industries  of  the 
chief  cities.  He  says:  "From  Tyre  come  sugar,  glass,  beads, 
glass  vessels  both  cut  and  blown. "^ 

Tyre  was  visited  by  the  Persian  traveler  Nasir-i-Khusrau  in 
1047  A.D.     He  writes: 

"The  walls  are  built  of  hewn  stone,  their  joints  being  set  in  bitumen 
to  keep  the  water  out.  ...  Its  caravanserais  are  built  of  five  or  six 
stories,  set  one  above  the  other.  There  are  numerous  fountains  of  water: 
The  bazaars  are  very  clean,  also  great  is  the  quantity  of  wealth  exposed. 
This  city  of  Tyre  is  renowned,  in  fact,  for  wealth  and  power  among  all 
the  maritime  cities  of  Syria.  The  population  for  the  most  part  is  of  the 
Shi'ah  sect,  but  the  Kadi  or  Judge  of  the  place  is  a  Sunni.  He  is  known  as 
the  son  of  Abu  Akil,  and  is  a  very  good  man,  also  very  wealthy.  They 
have  erected  a  Mashhad  (a  shrine,  or  place  of  martyrdom)  at  the  city 
gate,  where  one  may  see  great  quantities  of  carpets  and  hangings,  and 
lamps  and  lanterns  of  gold  and  silver.  The  town  itself  stands  on  an 
eminence.  Water  is  brought  thereto  from  the  mountain:  and  leading 
up  to  the  town  gate  they  have  built  arches  (for  the  aqueduct)  along  which 
the  water  comes  into  the  city."' 

Tyre  was  at  least  nominally  under  the  authority  of  Egypt  until 
the  Seljuk  Turks  under  Turgil  Bey  took  Damascus^  and  assumed 
authority  over  Syria.  The  Egyptians  under  their  vizer,  Bedr, 
made  war  in  Syria  and,  though  they  failed  to  retake  Damascus, 
they  succeeded  in  reducing  Tyre,^  which  for  many  years  had 
been  practically  independent.^  Bedr  was  succeeded  in  the 
vizerate  of  Egypt  by  Al-AfdaF  under  whose  authority  the  city 
was  ruled  at  the  beginning  of  the  period  of  the  Crusades.^ 

1  Mukaddasi,  163.  Vid.  LeStrange,  Pal.  under  Mos.,  p.  343.  Vid.  also  P. 
P.  T.,  Ill,  3,  p.  32. 

2  Mukaddasi,  180.     Vid.  LeStrange,  Pal.  under  Mos.,  p.  18. 

'  Nasir-i-Khusrau  II.    Vid.  LeStrange,  Palestine  Under  the  Moslems,  p.  343. 

*  1076  A.D.  5 1085  A.D. 

«  S.  Lane-Poole,  History  of  Egypt  in  the  Middle  Ages,  p.  161. 

'  Vid.  ibid.  »  Vid.  p.  88  below. 



During  the  centuries  of  the  Moslem  rule,  to  the  beginning 
of  the  Crusades,  Tyre  prospered.  To  her  ancient  industries 
was  added  the  production  of  sugar,  which  she  exported  to  all 
parts  of  the  world  and  which  was  used  for  medicinal  purposes.^ 
Her  wealth  continued.  At  the  close  of  this  period  the  aqueduct 
from  Ras  al-Ain  was  bringing  her  water  supply  to  the  gates  of 
the  island  city.^  She  was  made  the  naval  base  from  which  the 
Arabic  ships  sailed  forth  to  fight  against  the  Greeks.^  Her  walls, 
triple  on  the  land  side,  and  double  toward  the  sea,  with  the 
three  gates,  one  behind  the  other,  at  the  entrance,  were  the 
wonder  of  visitors.^  The  Egyptian  harbor  seems  no  longer  to 
have  been  used,  but  the  Sidonian  had  been  fortified,  the  walls 
at  its  entrance  being  drawn  in  and  protected  by  a  tower  at  either 
side.  In  this  inner  harbor  the  ships  of  the  city  anchored,  but 
in  the  outer  harbor  made  by  Alexander's  causeway,  the  ships  of 
other  lands  moored.  A  great  iron  chain  across  the  entrance  to 
the  inner  harbor  made  it  impossible  for  ships  to  pass  in  or  out 
except  when  it  was  lowered,  and  so  secured  the  city  against 
naval  attack.^  The  need  of  such  precautions  reveals  conditions 
unfavorable  to  the  building  up  and  maintaining  of  such  com- 
merce as  the  city  enjoyed  in  the  days  when  she  was  mistress  of 
the  waves.  There  was  no  central  power  strong  enough  to  sweep 
piracy  from  the  seas.^     Then  the  merchants  of  Tyre  found  them- 

1  Verum  et  canamellas  unde  preciosissima  usibus  et  saluti  mortalium 
necessaria  maxime  conficitur  zachara;  unde  per  institores  ad  ultimas  orbis 
partes  deportatur.  Will.  Tyre,  XIII,  3.  William  of  Tyre,  the  best  historian 
of  the  Crusades,  ended  his  work  entitled  Historia  Rerum  in  Partibus  Trans- 
marinis  Gestarum  in  1183  A. D.,  but  his  continuators  carried  his  story  forward 
to  1231  A.D.  For  convenience  we  have  followed  the  usual  custom  of  making 
all  citations  to  the  work  under  Will.  Tyre. 

2  Vid.  accounts  of  Ya'kQbi,  Istakhri,  Ibu  Haukal,  Mukaddasi  and  Nasir-i- 
Khusrau,  pp.  84-85  above. 

'  The  Crusaders  on  the  way  to  Jerusalem  met  at  Tarsus  a  fleet  of  "  Christian  " 
men  of  Flanders  and  Holland  who  had  been  practising  piracy  successfully  for 
eight  years.     (Will.  Tyre,  III,  23.) 



selves  no  longer  enjoying  a  monopoly  of  the  international  trade. 
Genoa,  Venice  and  Pisa  had  come  to  the  front  as  commercial 
cities.^  While  Tyre,  therefore,  did  not  hold  a  place  of  supremacy 
such  as  had  been  hers  in  the  days  of  Ezekiel,  she  was  nevertheless 
a  city  of  great  beauty,  industry,  commerce  and  wealth. 

The  last  decade  of  the  eleventh  century  saw  Europe  convulsed 
by  the  frenzied  eloquence  of  Peter  the  Hermit  as  he  heralded  the 
real  or  imaginary  persecutions  of  Christian  pilgrims  to  Jerusalem.^ 
Pope  Urban  II  proclaimed  the  Crusade  for  the  delivery  of  the 
Holy  Sepulchre  from  the  hands  of  the  infidels.  After  disaster 
had  befallen  the  vast  rabble  which  went  forth  under  the  leader- 
ship of  Peter  the  Hermit  and  Walter  the  Penniless,  the  real 
warriors  of  the  west,  knights  who  were  the  flower  of  the  chivalry 
of  their  time,  took  up  the  holy  warfare.  They  reached  Antioch, 
which  they  besieged  and  captured  in  June  1098,^  After  a  delay 
in  Antioch  of  more  than  six  months  they  passed  down  the  coast 
on  the  way  to  Jerusalem.  Their  experience  near  Tyre  is  re- 
corded,^ and  may  be  given  in  Claxon's  quaint  translation  as 
follows : 

They  went  so  fer  that  they  cam  to  this  noble  cyte  of  Sur.  There  they 
lodged  them  by  the  noble  fontayne,  .  .  .  They  lodged  this  nyght  in 
gardens  moche  delectable;  whan  it  was  daye  they  sette  them  forth  on 
theyr  lourneye.  And  passed  by  a  strayt  moche  perylous  whiche  is 
bytwene  the  montaines  &  the  see.^ 

At  this  time  Tyre  was  under  the  authority  of  the  Caliph  of 
Egypt.®    The  troops  of  the  Caliph  had  occupied  the  city  in  486 

1  "The  Venitians,  the  Genoese,  the  Pisans, — the  merchants  of  Amalfi  and 
Marseilles — had  all  stores  at  Alexandria,  in  the  maritime  cities  of  Phoenicia, 
and  in  the  city  of  Jerusalem."  W.  Robson,  Michaud's  History  of  the  Cru- 
sades, Vol.  I,  p.  11.  For  an  account  of  French  commerce  in  the  Levant  before 
the  Crusades,  see  article  of  M.  de  Guignes  in  Collection  des  Meilleurs  Disserta- 
tions, Relatifs  a  I'Histoire  de  France  (Paris,  1838),  p.  145 ff. 

2  W.  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist,  of  the  Crusades,  Vol.  I,  pp.  42-60. 

3  Ibid.,  Vol.  I,  pp.  155-157. 
*  Will.  Tyr.,  VII,  22. 

^  William  Claxton,  Godeffroy  of  Boloyne,  or  the  Siege  and  Conqueste  of 
Jerusalem,  by  William,  Archbishop  of  Tyre,  ed.  of  M.  N.  Clovin,  London,  1893, 
H  165. 

swilliamof  Tyre,  VII,  21. 


A.H.  (1093-1094  A.D.)/  but  the  authority  of  Egypt  was  not 
accepted  without  a  struggle.  The  city  revolted  and  in  490 
(1097-1098)  Al-Afdal,  Vizier  of  Egypt,  with  a  well  equipped  army 
marched  against  Tyre.  His  troops  entered  the  city  and  mas- 
sacred a  large  number  of  people.  The  governor  of  the  city  was 
brought  to  Al-Afdal  and  was  put  to  death  for  having  instigated 
the  revolt.^ 

Jerusalem  fell  before  the  Crusaders  on  July  15,  1099,^  and  God- 
frey of  Bouillon  was  chosen  king  of  the  newly  founded  Kingdom 
of  Jerusalem.^  After  his  death  in  1100,^  Baldwin,  his  brother, 
succeeded  him.^  Baldwin  proceeded  to  subdue  his  kingdom  as 
rapidly  as  possible.  In  order  that  communication  with  the  west 
might  be  unbroken,  it  was  necessary  that  the  coast  cities  be 
captured.  Tyre  bought  peace  with  Baldwin  by  gifts  and  presents 
in  1100,^  and  again  in  1101,^  but  in  1103  she  was  among  the 
cities  which  sent  aid  to  Acre  when  Baldwin  was  besieging  that 
city,^  and  to  Tripolis^  when  Raymond  was  besieging  it.^" 

The  Crusaders  had  built  the  fortress  Tibnin  (Toron),"  and  in 
the  year  500  (1106-1107)  Tzz  al-Mulk,  governor  of  Tyre, 
attacked  this  fortress  and  massacred  the  Franks  wHo  were  there.^^ 

^  Abu  al-Fida,  Annals  entitled  Mukhtasar  ta'rikh  al-bashar,  year  503.  Vid. 
R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  1  ff. 

The  references  to  Arabic  authors,  unless  otherwise  specified,  are  to  the 
text  and  translation  published  by  the  Academic  des  Inscriptions  et  Belles- 
Lettres,  Paris,  in  Recueil  des  Historiens  des  Croisades  Orientaux  which  is  cited 
R.  H.  C.  Or.  The  numerals  following  the  names  of  the  historians  indicate  the 
years  in  their  annals  under  which  the  citations  are  to  be  found. 

2  Ibn  Muyassir,  Annals,  year  490.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  461. 

3  William  of  Tyre,  VIII,  14. 
*  Ibid.,  X,  2. 

5  Ibid.,  IX,  23. 
8  Ibid.,  X,  1. 

'  Albertus  Aquensis,  Historia  Hierosolymitana,  VII,  34.  Vid.  Recueil  des 
Historiens  des  Croisades;  Historiens  Occidentaux,  Vol.  IV,  p.  530  ff. 

8  Ibid.,  VII,  51. 

9  Ibid.,  IX,  19. 

10  Ibid.,  IX,  32. 

"  WiUiam  of  Tyre,  XI,  5. 

i^Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi,  Annals  entitled  "Mirat  al-Zaman,"  year  500.  Vid. 
R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  530.    Jaques  de  Vitry,  Historia  Hierosolymitana, 


In  the  year  following,  Baldwin  appeared  before  Tyre  at  the  head 
of  an  army,  and  the  governor  of  the  city  paid  to  him  seven 
thousand  dinars  of  gold  as  the  price  of  peace.^ 

After  the  fall  of  Tripolis,  an  Egyptian  fleet  supplied  with  men, 
money  and  abundant  provisions,  appeared.  When  it  was  found 
that  Tripolis  had  fallen,  the  fleet  hastened  to  Tyre  and  its  pro- 
visions were  supplied  to  the  cities  which  remained  under  Egyptian 
authority — Tyre,  Sidon  and  Beirut.^ 

When  Sidon  surrendered  in  1110  A.D.,  Tyre  and  Ascalon 
alone  remained  to  be  captured.^  Tyre  was  of  unusual  im- 
portance, not  only  because  of  its  wealth,  but  because  it  was 
"caput  et  metropolis"  of  the  Christian  churches  of  Phoenicia, 
and  fourteen  cities  were  suffragen  to  the  Archbishop  of  Tyre.'* 

The  Tyrians  foresaw  that  their  city  would  be  attacked.  They 
therefore  planned  to  remove  a  large  amount  of  wealth  to  a  place 
of  safety.  A  league  was  made  with  Tugtakin  of  Damascus  for 
the  removal  of  the  wealth  to  his  city.  An  illustrious  Christian 
man  by  the  name  of  Reinfridus,  a  noted  soldier  and  citizen  of 
Tyre,  agreed  to  conduct  the  treasure  train  safely  to  Damascus. 
He  secretly  notified  Baldwin  who  arranged  his  soldiers  in  ambush. 
The  camel  train  left  Tyre  with  its  rich  treasures.  In  an  un- 
expected night  attack  the  Franks  fell  upon  the  Tyrians  and 
put  to  rout  those  whom  they  did  not  succeed  in  slaying.  The 
train  was  captured  and  the  Franks  carried  off  in  mule  and  camel 
vehicles  uncounted  gold,  silver,  precious  ornaments,  treasures, 
precious  purples  and  silks  of  various  colors.^ 

says  that  this  fortress  was  built  in  order  to  "vex"  Tyre.  P.  P.  T.,  XI,  2,  7. 
Vid.  also  Burchard  of  Mt.  Zion,  P.  P.  T.,  XII,  p.  21. 

1  Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi,  501.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  534.  Abu  al-Fida, 
504,  represents  this  gift  as  having  been  made  subsequent  to  the  fall  of  Sidon  in 
1110  A.D.; — or  does  he  refer  to  another  payment  of  tribute?  Vid.  ibid.,  Vol. 
I,  p.  10. 

2  Ibn  al-Athir,  Annals  entitled  "Kamil  Altawarikh,"  year  503.  Vid. 
R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  274.  Abu  al-Fida,  503,  says  that  the  fleet  failed  to 
reach  Tripolis  because  of  adverse  winds.    Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  I,  p.  10. 

» William  of  Tyre,  XI,  17. 

*  Ibid.,  X,  17. 

^  Jaques  de  Vitry,  XII,  3. 


Baldwin  collected  his  forces  in  1111  A.D.  for  the  subjugation 
of  Tyre,  but  the  Norwegian  fleet  which  had  been  supporting  his 
arms  had  withdrawn  and  such  a  fleet  as  he  was  able  to  gather 
was  of  little  value.^  Troops  from  places  less  defensible  had 
joined  the  forces  within  Tyre,  so  that  the  city  had  a  full  quota  of 
defenders.  The  siege  began  on  November  27,  1111  A.D.^ 
The  besiegers  made  repeated  attacks  against  the  city.  They 
had  prepared  two  great  wooden  towers  of  sufficient  height  to 
enable  them  to  fight  effectively,  and  these  they  brought  up 
against  the  walls.^  Meanwhile,  despairing  of  receiving  help 
from  Egypt,  the  people  of  Tyre  sent  an  appeal  to  Tugtakin 
of  Damascus,  and  desired  to  place  themselves  under  his  pro- 
tection. Tugtakin  advanced  to  Paneas^  and  sent  infantry 
and  cavalry  to  the  aid  of  Tyre.^  Some  of  these  fell  into  the  hands 
of  Baldwin  and  were  put  to  death.^  The  force  of  Tugtakin  cut 
off  supplies  coming  by  land,  but  the  besiegers  were  still  able  to 
get  provisions  from  Sidon.  Tugtakin  therefore  attacked  Sidon 
and  slew  many  Franks.^  Baldwin  pressed  the  siege  and,  by  the 
towers,  forced  the  first  and  second  wall,  and  was  attacking  the 
third.^  Tugtakin  sent  messages  of  encouragement  to  the 
besieged.^  The  governor  of  the  city,  whose  title  was  Izz  al-Mulk, 
held  a  council  of  war,  at  which  a  sheikh  who  had  been  present  at 
the  siege  of  Tripolis^  volunteered  to  destroy  the  wooden  towers. 

^  Will.  Tyr.,  XI,  17,  calls  it  a  qualemqualem  fleet,  saying,  "congregatis 
ex  universa  ora  maritima  navibus  quotquot  potuit,  classem  ordinat  qualem- 
qualem.    Vid.  also  Jaques  de  Vitry,  XII,  4. 

2  Ibn  al-Athir,  505.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  283.  Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi, 
505,  gives  Nov.  29,  1111,  as  date.     Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  543. 

»  Will.  Tyr.,  XI,  17. 

*  Paneas  was  Caesarea  Philippi.  Foulcher  de  Chartres,  Historia  Hiero- 
solymitana,  49.     Vid.  Rec.  Hist.  Crois.  Occid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  459  ff. 

*Abu  al-Mahasin,  Annals  entitled  al-Nujum,  505.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or., 
Vol.  Ill,  p.  491.  Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi,  505.  Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  543.  Jaques 
de  Vitry,  XII,  4-6. 

» Ibn  al-Athir,  505.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  285. 

^  Will.  Tyr.,  XI,  17.  Towers  were  protected  against  fire  in  the  usual  man- 
ner, by  hides.     Albertus  Aquensis,  XII,  6. 

8  Abu  al-Mah&sin,  year  505.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  491.  Sibt  Ibn 
al-Jauzi,  505.  Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  544.  Ibn  al-Athir,  505.  Vid.  ibid., 
Vol.  I,  p.  285.     Jaques  de  Vitry,  XII,  4-6. 

« Ibn  al-Athir,  505.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  284. 


With  a  thousand  armed  warriors  bearing  burning  fagots  he 
made  a  sally  and  succeeded  in  setting  fire  to  the  towers.^  The 
Franks  saved  the  larger  tower.  The  fosses  had  been  filled  up 
and  the  assaults  of  the  besiegers  were  made  so  effectively  that 
the  city  was  almost  in  despair  when  a  hurling  machine  was 
erected  by  which  the  Tyrians  succeeded  in  setting  fire  to  the 
great  tower  of  the  besiegers,  hurling  against  it  materials  soaked 
with  naptha  of  which  a  supply  was  found  in  the  ground.^ 
Sulphur,  pitch  and  other  combustibles  were  also  used. 

Stubborn  fighting  on  both  sides  continued  until  spring. 
Then  the  Franks,  hearing  that  Tugtakin  was  approaching  with 
twenty  thousand  men,^  and  fearing  that  all  the  territory  already 
possessed  would  be  lost,  raised  the  siege  on  April  21,  1112, 
burned  such  implements  of  war  as  could  not  be  moved,  and 
retired  to  Acre.^  The  force  of  Tugtakin  entered  Tyre,  and  the 
people  gave  to  their  deliverer  much  money  and  many  precious 
gifts. ^  They  did  not  neglect  to  repair  their  fosses  and  ramparts 
which  had  suffered  by  the  siege.^ 

The  Franks  built  the  fort  called  Scandalium  some  five  miles 
distant  in  order  the  more  effectively  to  harass  Tyre.^  Petty 
fighting  was  continued  on  both  sides.  Tyrians  frequently 
attacked  pilgrims.  In  1113  a  band  of  pilgrims  was  attended  by 
a  company  of  Baldwin's  soldiers.  Near  Tyre  the  soldiers  lay 
in  ambush  and  when  men  from  the  city  came  out  and  attacked 
the  pilgrims,  Baldwin's  soldiers  surprised  them  and  compelled 
them  to  flee  back  to  Tyre.^ 

After  delivering  the  city  from  the  attack  of  Baldwin,  Tugtakin 
had  withdrawn,  leaving  the  city  under  the  authority  of  the 
Caliph  of  Egypt.     However  the  following  year,^  fearing  that 

1  Will.  Tyr.,  XI,  17. 

2  Will.  Tyr.,  XI,  17;  Jaques  de  Vitry,  XII,  7. 

3  Ibn  al-Athir,  505.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  286.  Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi, 
505.     Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  545. 

*Will.   Tyr.,   XI,   30;  Foulcher  de  Chartres,  62. 

6  Jaques  de  Vitry,  XII,  10. 

« Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi,  506.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  545.  Ibn  al- 
Athir,  518,  dates  the  appointment  of  Mas'ud  ten  years  later,  giving  the  same 
facts  except  as  to  the  occasion  of  the  appointment  which  he  gives  as  an  attack 
of  the  Franks  in  526  (1122-1123).     Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  I,  p.  356. 


Baldwin  would  make  a  second  attack,  the  people  of  Tyre  ar- 
ranged with  their  governor,  Izz  al-Mulk,  to  put  the  city  under  the 
protection  of  Tugtakin.  They  requested  Tugtakin  to  send  an 
amir  of  his  choice  and  forces  for  the  city's  defense,  and  offered  to 
put  the  city  permanently  under  his  authority.  Tugtakin  sent  an 
amir  named  Mas'ud,  who  was  a  brave  and  experienced  warrior, 
and  with  him  troops.  Prayer  continued  to  be  offered  in  the 
mosques  in  the  name  of  the  CaUph  of  Egypt,  and  money  was 
coined  in  his  name  also.^ 

Tugtakin  wrote  Al-Afdal  explaining  the  situation,  and  promis- 
ing to  withdraw  his  troops  whenever  they  should  no  longer  be 
needed  for  the  city's  protection.^  He  asked  that  Egypt  should 
send  men  and  provisions.  Al-Afdal  thanked  him;  a  fleet  set 
forth,  and  Tyre  assumed  her  ancient  tranquility. 

Peace  was  arranged  on  what  seemed  to  be  a  solid  basis  and 
prosperity  returned,  for  because  of  the  security  of  travel,  the 
merchants  of  Tyre  carried  on  their  trade  on  every  side.^ 

The  city  seems  to  have  suffered  but  little  from  the  earthquake 
that  in  1114  A.D.  shook  all  Syria  and  laid  many  cities  in  ruins.^ 

As  Tyre  was  still  nominally  under  Egyptian  authority,^  Al- 
Mamoun  successor  to  Al-Afdal  as  Vizier  of  Egypt,®  sent  a  well- 
supplied  and  equipped  fleet  to  the  city  in  1123  A.D.  When 
Mas'ud,  who  was  still  in  command  of  the  city,  came  to  salute 
the  oflicer  in  charge  of  the  fleet,  he  was  thrown  into  chains  and 
carried  to  Egypt.^  In  Egypt  he  was  shown  great  honors,  and 
then  sent  to  Damascus.^    The  Egyptian  authorities  apologized 

1  Tyrian  dinars  are  referred  to  by  a  number  of  writers  of  this  period.  Vid. 
Ibn  Jubair,  Voyage  of,  under  description  of  Paneas;  Beha  ad-Din,  Rec. 
Hist.  Crois.  Orient.,  Vol.  Ill,  8,  19,  101.  In  this  last  reference  it  is  stated 
that  the  ransom  of  a  Christian  man  captured  was  put  at  ten  Tyrian  dinars, 
and  the  ransom  of  a  woman  at  five.  Ibn  Jubair  states  that  the  Tyrian  dinar 
was  a  gold  coin  but  he  did  not  know  its  exact  weight. 

2  Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi,  507.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  546.  Ibn  al-Athir, 
518.     Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  I,  p.  357. 

3  Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi,  507.    Vid.  ibid..  Vol.  Ill,  p.  547. 
*  Will.  Tyr.,  XI,  23. 

5  Ibn  al-Athir,  518.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  356. 
8  Ibn  Muyassir,  516.    Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  468. 
'  Ibn  Muyassir,  517.     Vid.  ibid. 
0  Ibn  al-Athir,  518.     Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  I,  p.  357. 


to  Tugtakin  for  their  removal  of  Mas'ud.  Tugtakin  responded 
politely  and  promised  to  cooperate  for  the  common  defense. 

The  expulsion  of  Mas'ud  was  taken  as  a  piece  of  good  fortune 
by  the  Franks.  They  thought  that  the  city  could  not  now 
resist  them  and  so  began  preparations  for  a  new  attack.  The 
Egyptian  commandant  in  the  city  recognized  his  inability  to 
protect  it  with  the  provision  and  equipment  at  hand,  and  noti- 
fied the  Caliph  of  Egypt.^  The  Caliph,  Al-Amer,  wrote:  "We 
entrust  the  defense  to  Dahir  al-Din"  (Tugtakin).^  Tugtakin 
took  possession  of  Tyre  and  brought  in  supplies  of  men  and 
provisions  such  as  he  thought  would  be  sufficient  to  protect  the 

Upon  the  death  of  Baldwin  I,  on  April  7,  1118  A.D.,  Baldwin 
du  Bourg  succeeded  to  the  throne  of  Jerusalem.^  He  was  taken 
prisoner  almost  at  once,  in  1123  A.D.,  and  Eustace  de  Grenier 
was  appointed  Viceroy.^  It  was  then  that  the  Christian  forces 
were  much  augmented  by  the  arrival  of  a  strong  Venetian  fleet. 

The  Venetians  had  long  enjoyed  profitable  commerce  with  the 
east,  and  because  they  were  not  eager  to  break  these  trade- 
relationships,  they  had  not  taken  any  great  part  in  the  Crusades 
up  to  this  time.  However  they  saw  that  the  Genoese  and 
Pisans  were  gaining  great  advantage  from  their  connection  with 
the  movement,  and  became  eager  to  gain  the  favor  of  the  new 
kingdom  and  share  in  the  spoils  of  the  Saracens.  They  prepared 
a  great  fleet  and  set  sail.^  An  Egyptian  fleet  of  ninety  vessels 
was  menacing  the  coast  cities  held  by  the  Crusaders.  The 
Venetians  under  Domenicho  Michaeli,  Doge  of  Venice,  met  the 
Egyptian  fleet  near  Ascalon  and  destroyed  it.'^  The  presence  of 
the  Venetian  seamen  encouraged  the  Christians  to  attempt 
aggressive  warfare.     The  leaders  in  council  at  Jerusalem  decided 

1  Ibn  al-Athir,  518.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  358. 

2  Abu  al-Mahasin,  518.  Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  493.  Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi,  518. 
Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  564. 

3  Ibn  al-Athir,  518.     Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  I,  p.  358. 
<  Will.  Tyr.,  XII,  1. 

6  Ibid.,  XII,  21,  23;  Jaques  de  Vitry.     Vid.  P.  P.  T.,  XI,  2,  7. 
e  Foulcher  de  Chartres,  20. 
'  Will.  Tyr.,  XII,  22-23. 


to  attack  either  Ascalon  or  Tyre,  but  the  opinion  was  divided 
between  these  two  strongholds.  It  was  therefore  determined 
to  settle  the  question  by  an  appeal  to  God.  In  a  box  on  the 
altar  two  pieces  of  parchment  were  placed;  on  one  of  these 
"Ascalon"  was  written,  and  on  the  other  "Tyre."  In  the 
presence  of  a  crowd,  a  child  drew  forth  the  decisive  piece  of 
parchment;  the  chance  fell  upon  Tyre  and  preparations  to 
besiege  the  city  began  at  once.^ 

The  Venetians  were  more  concerned  about  their  own  gain 
than  that  of  the  Kingdom  of  Jerusalem.  Before  beginning  the 
siege  they  demanded  that  they  should  have  a  church,  a  street, 
a  common  oven  and  a  national  tribunal  in  every  city  in  Palestine. 
They  further  demanded,  besides  other  things,  that  they  should 
have  possession  of  a  third  of  the  conquered  city.^ 

At  this  point  in  our  record  our  chief  authority,  William  of 
Tyre,  gives  an  account  of  the  city.  After  reviewing  its  history 
he  states  a  number  of  important  facts  about  the  city  as  it 
then  was. 

Tyre  claimed  sway  over  fourteen  cities,  among  which  were 
Acco,  Sidon,  Beirut,  Byblus,  Tripolis  and  Aradus.^  The 
regions  near  the  city  were  of  wonderful  fertility,  especially  the 
section  near  to  Ras  al-Ain.  That  noble  fountain  overflowing 
its  great  stone  tower-like  enclosures,  sent  its  life-giving  water 
through  aqueducts  to  irrigate  the  vineyards,  gardens  and 
orchards  of  the  surrounding  country.  From  the  summit  of  this 
lofty  fountain  one  looked  over  extensive  fields  of  sugar  cane,  for 
Tyre  had  added  the  new  industry  of  producing  cane  and  making 
sugar  to  her  other  sources  of  wealth.* 

One  of  the  foremost  industries  of  the  city  at  that  time  was 
the  production  of  glass.  In  this  industry  the  city  easily  held 
first  place  because  of  the  quality  of  the  sand  there.     The  glass 

1  Will.  Tyr.,  XH,  24. 

^  Will.  Tyr.,  XII,  25,  gives  in  full  the  agreement  exacted  by  the  Venetians. 

3  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  2. 

'  Ibid.,  XIII,  3;  Jaques  de  Vitry,  P.  P.  T.,  X,  2,  92;  XI,  2,  p.  7. 

Jaques  de  Vitry  agrees  in  his  description  of  Ras  al-Ain,  the  surrounding 
vineyards,  orchards  and  gardens,  the  walls  and  towers  of  Tyre,  and  the  harbor. 
He  adds  that  Tyre  was  abundantly  supplied  with  fish. 


made  at  Tyre  was  of  great  clearness  and  was  highly  prized. 
It  was  exported  even  to  remote  provinces  and  brought  fame 
to  the  city  among  distant  nations.  By  this  industry  great  gain 
came  to  the  merchants. 

The  city  was  especially  difficult  of  attack.  The  approach 
by  sea  was  perilous  to  those  unfamiliar  with  these  waters.  The 
side  of  the  city  toward  the  sea  was  protected  with  a  double  wall 
with  towers.  On  the  side  toward  the  mainland  the  walls  were 
triple,  and  on  them  were  towers  of  great  height  and  near  together. 
Across  the  isthmus  that  joined  the  city  to  the  mainland,  a  wide 
fosse  had  been  dug,  into  which  the  waters  of  the  sea  could  be 
admitted,  leaving  the  city  an  island.  The  inner  port  on  the 
north  was  guarded  by  twin  towers.^ 

The  city  was  not  without  able  defenders.  She  claimed  the 
protection  of  Egypt  and  Damascus.  Within  her  walls  were 
noble  citizens,  very  wealthy,  especially  those  whose  commerce 
with  "all  the  provinces  adjacent  to  the  Mediterranean  Sea" 
filled  the  city  with  riches.  Then  refugees  from  other  cities  had 
fled  hither  for  safety.^ 

The  siege  of  Tyre  by  the  Christian  forces,  newly  strengthened, 
began  in  April,  1124.^  While  the  Venetians  blockaded  the 
harbor,"*  the  land  forces  located  their  camps,  set  up  their  engines 
of  war  and  began  the  assault.  A  wooden  tower  was  built  and 
missiles  thrown  from  it  did  much  execution.  This  tower  was 
the  center  of  constant  and  furious  fighting.  Showers  of  darts, 
javeHns  and  stones  were  ready  for  any  of  the  besiegers  who 
exposed  themselves.  But  the  battering  rams  were  weakening 
the  walls;  besiegers  and  besieged  fought  with  equal  violence.^ 

Within  the  city  seventy  cavalrymen  of  Damascus  distinguished 
themselves  by  their  valor  and  aroused  the  Tyrians  to  a  high 

1  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  5. 

2  Ibid.,  XIII,  5. 

3  Ibn  al-Athir,  518.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  358. 

^  The  doge  of  Venice  had  under  his  command  "forty  galleys  and  many 
ships  both  great  and  small,"  according  to  Jaques  de  Vi try's  account  of  the 
siege.     Vid.  P.  P.  T.,  XI,  2,  p.  16. 

5  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  6. 


courage.^  The  men  of  Ascalon  marched  against  Jerusalem,  but 
the  siege  was  not  Hfted.^  The  lord  of  Damascus,  Tugtakin, 
advanced  to  Paneas  with  an  army  to  break  the  siege.^  At  the 
same  time  a  fleet  from  Egypt  sailed  to  the  rescue  of  the  be- 
leaguered city.  The  Crusaders'  forces  were  divided  into  three 
parts.  The  first  part,  under  the  count  of  Tripolis  and  William 
de  Bourg,  was  to  go  against  the  men  of  Damascus.  The  Vene- 
tians were  to  meet  the  Egyptian  fleet,  while  the  third  part  was 
to  press  the  siege.  The  lord  of  Damascus  did  not  wait  to  give 
battle,  but  fled.  The  Egyptian  fleet  promptly  withdrew  because 
of  this.  The  Crusaders  therefore  returned  with  full  force  and 
new  vigor  to  the  siege  .^ 

Dissension  among  the  friends  of  the  city  aided  the  arms  of 
her  enemies.  The  Caliph  of  Egypt  had  yielded  half  of  the  place  to 
the  Sultan  of  Damascus  in  order  to  enlist  his  arms  in  the  defense. 
But  the  Turks  and  the  Egyptians  were  jealous  of  each  other  and 
would  not  fight  together.^ 

When  the  city  was  almost  at  the  point  of  surrender,  discord 
arose  among  the  besiegers  and  nearly  rendered  their  valor  and 
toil  futile.  The  land  army  complained  that  they  had  to  bear  the 
whole  burden,  and  threatened  to  remain  in  their  tents  as  inactive 
as  the  Venetians  were  in  their  ships.  But  when  the  commander 
of  the  fleet  appeared  in  camp  with  sailors  armed  with  oars  and 
offered  to  assault  the  walls,  emulation  iteplaced  discord,  and  the 
siege  was  renewed  with  vigor.® 

At  this  juncture  certain  young  men  of  Tyre  won  for  them- 
selves "perennial  glory  among  their  people"  by  venturing  beyond 
the  walls  and  setting  fire  to  the  attacking  tower  of  the  enemy.'' 
The  besiegers,  taken  unawares,  flew  to  arms.     They  worked  to 

1  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  7. 

2  Ibid.,  XIII,  8;  Foulcher  de  Chartres,  33. 

3  Ibn  al-Athir,  518.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  358.  Abu  al-Mahasin, 
518.  Vid.  ibid..  Vol.  Ill,  p.  494.  Sibt  Ibn,  518.  Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  564. 
Ibn  Muyassir,  518.    Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  469. 

*  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  9. 

^  W.  Robson,  Midland's  Hist.  Crusades,  Vol.  I,  p.  309. 
« W.  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist.  Cru.,  Vol.  I,  p.  301. 
'  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  10;  Foulcher  de  Chartres,  32. 


extinguish  the  flames  but  would  have  failed  had  it  not  been  for 
the  high  courage  of  a  young  man  who  climbed  up  through  the 
burning  tower  and  finally  quenched  the  flames.  Meanwhile 
those  who  fired  the  tower  were  captured  and  put  to  the  sword. 
Now  the  attack  was  pressed,  if  not  with  greater  vigor,  at  least 
with  greater  wisdom.  From  Antioch  an  Armenian  by  the 
name  of  Havedic  was  brought  to  direct  the  catapults  and  other 
hurling  devices.  This  man  was  an  expert  and  worked  with 
great  effect.^ 

Then  news  came  that  Balac,  most  powerful  of  the  Turks,  had 
been  killed^  near  Hierapolis,  and  the  soldiers  renewed  the  attack 
with  greater  zeal.  Meanwhile  famine  was  abroad  in  the  city.^ 
Suffering  was  extreme  and  the  hope  of  outside  help  had  failed. 
It  was  then,  when  the  condition  was  desperate,  that  expert 
swimmers  of  Tyre,  by  diving  cut  the  anchor  cable  of  the  Venetian 
guard  ship,  and  by  another  cable  which  they  had  made  fast,  the 
ship  was  drawn  ashore.  Only  five  men  were  on  board:  four  of 
them  escaped  by  swimming,  while  one  was  killed.^ 

The  men  of  Ascalon  made  another  futile  raid  near  Jerusalem: 
the  besieging  army  could  not  be  drawn  off.^ 

The  city  resolved  to  surrender,  but  as  a  commercial  city 
they  resolved  to  make  as  good  a  bargain  of  surrender  as  possible. 
Tugtakin  of  Damascus  came  and  arranged  the  terms^  with  the 
captains  of  the  army,  the  patriarch  of  Jerusalem,^  the  leader  of 
the  Venetians,  the  count  of  Tripolis,  William  de  Bourg  and 
others.     The  people  of  Tyre  were  to  be  allowed  to  march  out  in 

1  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  10-11. 

2  May  6,  1124.  Kamal  al-Din,  518.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  642 
Foulcher  de  Chartres,  31. 

«  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  11;  Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi,  518.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill, 
p.  564. 

*Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  10-11. 

5  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  10-11. 

6  Ibn  al-Athir,  518.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  358.  Abu  al-Mahasin,  518. 
Vid.  ibid..  Vol.  Ill,  p.  494. 

'  Jaques  de  Vitry  (P.  P.  T.,  XI,  2,  pp.  15-16),  in  his  account  of  the  siege 
names  the  patriarch  of  Jerusalem  as  the  leader.     He  says  that  the  Tyrians 
surrendered  on  the  condition  of  their  lives  and  property  being  safe. 


safety  with  their  possessions.^  Those  who  might  wish  to  remain 
were  to  be  allowed  to  do  so  upon  payment  of  a  ransom.^ 

The  soldiers  of  Tugtakin  and  the  Crusaders  formed  in  two 
long  lines  facing  each  other,  while  the  citizens  marched  out 
between  the  two  armies.  The  citizens  carried  away  all  their 
movable  possessions.  They  went  some  to  Damascus,  some  to 
Gaza,  and  others  elsewhere.^  Ibn  el-Athir  adds,  "The  event 
was  a  great  calamity  for  Islam,  for  Tyre  was  one  of  the  towns 
most  beautiful  and  strong.  Let  us  hope  that  the  Most  High 
God  will  bring  it  back  again  under  the  rule  of  Islam. "^ 

The  conquering  army  entered.  They  were  amazed  at  the 
fortifications  of  the  city,  the  strength  of  the  buildings, 
the  height  of  the  castles,  the  beauty  of  the  port,  and  the 
strength  of  the  walls.  They  wondered  also  at  the  bravery  of 
the  Tyrians  who  had  fought  not  only  against  the  military  force, 
but  against  famine  as  well.  "Only  five  measures  of  grain  were 
found  in  the  city."^ 

In  the  division  of  the  spoils  the  Venetians  got  their  third 
according  to  agreement.  The  date  of  the  fall  of  the  city  was 
June  29,  1124.^  The  Franks  entered  the  city  on  July  8.  It 
remained  in  their  hands  until  the  last  days  of  the  Kingdom  of 

Four  years  after  the  siege  of  Tyre  its  archbishopric  was  given 
to  William,  Prior  of  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre  at  Jeru^- 
salem,  an  Englishman  reputed  for  learning  and  piety.'''    When 

1  Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi,  518.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  565.  Foulcher  de 
Chartres,  34;  Ibn  Muj'assir  gives  July  13  as  the  date  of  the  surrender. 

2  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  13;  Foulcher  de  Chartres,  34. 

»  Abu  al-Mahasin,  518.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  494.  Sibt  Ibn  al- 
Jauzi,  518.  Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  565.  Ibn  Muyassir,  518.  Vid.  ibid.,  Vol. 
Ill,  p.  469. 

*  Ibn  al-Athir,  518.    Vid.  ibid..  Vol.  I,  p.  359. 

5  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  14:  Foulcher  de  Chartres,  36;  Rabbi  Joseph  (1496- 
),  Chronicles,  sect.  120  (Trans.  Bialloblotzky,  Lond.,  1836). 

6  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  14. 

^  William  of  Tyre,  XIII,  23.  Not  to  be  confused  with  the  William,  Arch- 
bishop of  Tyre,  who  has  given  us  our  best  history  of  the  Crusades.  The 
latter  did  not  become  Archbishop  of  Tyre  until  1175.  (Vid.  his  own  account, 
XXI,  9.) 


William  became  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  Fulcher  succeeded  him 
as  Archbishop  of  Tyre.^  He  was  followed  by  Peter,  Prior  of  the 
Church  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre.^  The  next  occupant  of  the 
archbishopric  of  Tyre  was  Frederic,  Bishop  of  Acco.^ 

When  William  became  Archbishop,  he  found  that  in  the 
interval  between  his  election  and  the  death  of  his  successor,  Odo,^ 
some  of  the  suffragan  bishops,  among  whom  was  the  Bishop  of 
Sidon,  refused  to  recognize  the  authority  of  Tyre.  A  sharp 
contest  ensued  between  the  new  Archbishop  and  the  rebellious 
bishops  which  was  only  ended  by  the  intervention  of  Pope 
Innocent  11.^  In  response  to  the  Papal  orders,  delivered  by  an 
apostolic  delegate,^  order  was  restored  and  the  ancient  authority 
of  the  Archbishop  of  Tyre  was  recognized/ 

Fetellus,  about  whom  little  is  known  except  that  he  was 
arch-deacon  of  Antioch  at  a  later  date,^  wrote  of  Tyre  circa  1130 
A.D.:  "Before  Tyre  is  the  stone  on  which  they  say  that  Jesus 
sat,^  which  remained  uninjured  from  His  time  till  the  expulsion 
of  the  Gentiles  from  the  city,  but  was  afterwards  broken  by  the 
Franks  and  also  by  the  Venetians.  Above  the  remains  of  it  on 
its  own  site,  a  church  has  been  begun  in  honor  of  the  Savior.^" 
In  our  own  time  Tyre  was  vigorously  besieged  both  by  land  and 
by  sea,  and  was  taken  by  the  Patriarch  Warmund  (Gormund), 
of  blessed  memory,  with  the  aid  of  the  Venetians,  by  the  permis- 
sion of  the  grace  of  God."" 

Baldwin  II,  having  no  son  to  succeed  him,  chose  as  a  bride- 
groom for  his  eldest  daughter  MeHsend,  the  Count  of  Anjou, 

1  Will.  Tyr.,  XIV,  11. 

2  Will.  Tyr.,  XVI,  17. 
»  Will.  Tyr.,  XIX,  6. 

*  Odo  died  in  1122  A.D.,  Foulcher  de  Chartres,  62. 

6  Will.  Tyr.,  XIV   13-14. 

6  Will.  Tyr.,  XV,  11. 

^Vid.  above,  p.  78;  Will.  Tyr.,  XIII,  2;  Publ.  de  la  Soc.  de  I'Or.  Latin: 
Ser.  Geogr.,  I,  p.  331. 

8  Vid.  P.  P.  T.,  V,  7. 

« Vid.  also  Jaques  de  Vitry,  P.  P.  T.,  XI,  2,  p.  16. 

1"  John  of  Wiirzburg,  c.  1160-1170,  gives  the  story  of  the  large  marble  stone 
and  says  that  the  church  "has  been  built."     P.  P.  T.,  V,  2,  p.  63. 

"  P.  P.  T.,  V,  50-51. 


Fulk  V,  who  reached  Acre  in  the  spring  of  1129.^  When  the 
marriage  was  celebrated,  Fulk  received  Tyre  and  Acre  as  his 
wife's  dowry .^  Two  years  later  Baldwin  died  and  Fulk  of 
Anjou  became  king. 

In  the  year  528  (1133-1134)  Shems  al-Muluk  (Bouri),  lord 
of  Damascus,  with  an  army,  ravaged  the  country  about  Tyre 
and  Acre,  slaying  many  people  and  capturing  others.  He 
carried  off  much  plunder.^ 

When  Fulk  of  Anjou  died  in  1142  A.D.,  his  son  Baldwin  III, 
who  was  but  thirteen  years  of  age,  was  solemnly  consecrated  and 
crowned,  his  mother  Melisend  holding  the  throne  until  his 
maturity.  In  1152  he  came  to  the  throne  and  the  realm  was 
divided  between  himself  and  his  mother.  In  the  division  Tyre 
and  Acre  with  the  coast  fell  to  the  young  king.^  Baldwin  III 
desired  a  closer  alliance  with  Constantinople.  He  therefore  sent 
envoys  to  beg  a  bride  of  the  royal  family.  Manuel  consented 
and  sent  Theodora,  his  niece,  with  a  splendid  dowry.  Theodora 
reached  Tyre  in  September  1159  A.D.,  and  a  few  days  later  was 
crowned  in  Jerusalem.^ 

Under  the  rule  of  the  Crusaders  there  was  religious  toleration 
in  Tyre.  Moslems,  Christians,  Jews  and  adherents  of  the  city's 
primitive  faith  dwelt  peaceably  together.  Moreover,  the  city's 
industries  were  not  destroyed  by  the  change  in  political  control. 
The  Arab  historian,  Idrisi,  writing  in  1154,  says: 

"Stir  is  a  fine  city  ...  it  is  fortified  .  .  .  there  is  a  large  suburb. 
They  make  here  long-necked  vases  of  glass  and  pottery.  Also  a  sort  of 
white  clothes-stuff  which  is  imported  thence  to  all  parts,  being  extremely 
fine  and  well-woven  beyond  compare.  The  price  also  is  very  high  and 
in  but  few  neighboring  countries  do  they  make  as  good  stuff."^ 

The  prosperity  of  the  city  was  still  suflScient  to  tempt  her 
enemies.     In  the  year  550  (1155-1156)  an  Egyptian  fleet  entered 

1  Will.  Tyr.,  XIV,  1. 

2Ibid.,  XIV,  2;  XVI,  1-3. 

» Sibt  Ibn  al-Jauzi,  528,    Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  570. 

*  Will.  Tyr.,  XVII,  13-14. 
« Ibid.,  XVIII,  22. 

*  Idrisi.     Vid.  LeStrange,  Palest,  under  Mos.,  p.  344. 


the  port  of  Tyre,  made  a  raid  with  fire  and  sword,  captured 
vessels  belonging  to  the  Christians  and  others,  and  carried  off 
many  prisoners  and  much  plunder.^ 

In  the  year  552  (August  1157)  Tyre  suffered  from  an  earth- 

The  testimony  of  a  Jewish  traveler  of  this  time  is  of  unusual 
importance.  Rabbi  Benjamin  of  Tudela,  in  his  accounts  of 
his  travels,  1160-1173,  speaking  of  Tyre,  says: 

"  New  Sur  is  a  very  beautiful  city,  the  port  of  which  is  in  the  town  itself 
and  is  guarded  by  two  towers,  within  which  the  vessels  ride  at  anchor. 
The  officers  of  customs  draw  an  iron  chain  from  tower  to  tower  every 
night,  thus  preventing  any  thieves  or  robbers  from  escaping  by  boats. 
There  is  no  port  in  the  world  equal  to  this.  About  400  Jews  reside  here. 
.  .  .  The  Jews  of  Sur  are  ship  owners  and  manufacturers  of  the  celebrated 
Tyrian  glass.  The  purple  dye  is  also  found  in  this  vicinity.  If  you 
mount  the  walls  of  New  Sur,  you  may  see  the  remains  of  'Tyre  the 
crowning'  which  was  inundated  by  the  seas;  it  is  about  a  distance  of  a 
stone's  throw^from  the  new  town,  and  whoever  embarks  may  observe  the 
towers,  the  markets,  the  streets  aad  the  halls  at  the  bottom  of  the  sea.^ 
The  city  of  New  Sur  is  very  commercial,  and  one  to  which  the  traders 
resort  from  the  whole  world."* 

In  the  year  1167  an  event  of  more  than  usual  importance 
occurred  in  Tyre.  The  king  of  Jerusalem,  Amaury,  had  sought 
alliance  with  Emperor  Manuel  of  Constantinople,  and  to  this 
end  messengers  had  been  sent  to  seek  for  him  a  bride.  On  their 
return  the  messengers,  with  the  royal  bride,  Mary,  landed  at 
Tyre,  and  when  the  king  learned  of  their  success,  he  hastened 
to  this  city.  The  marriage  was  solemnized  in  the  church  at 
Tyre  amid  much  pomp  and  joy.^ 

1  Ibn  Muyassir,  550.    Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  470. 

2  Abu  al-Mahasin,  552.     Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  509. 

^  This  statement  has  led  to  the  supposition  that  the  island  was  much  larger 
in  ancient  times.  However  modern  measurements  are  in  agreement  with 
those  of  the  ancients.  It  is  almost  certain  that  what  might  be  seen  in  Ben- 
jamin's time  was  the  ruins  of  fallen  grandeur  such  as  Dr.  Thompson  speaks 
of  having  seen.     Page  131  below. 

*  Wright,  Early  Travels  in  Palestine,  p.  80;  Adler,  Jour.  Palest.  Ex.  Fund, 
1894,  p.  288.  M.  N.  Adler,  The  Itinerary  of  Benjamin  of  Tudela,  Lond., 
1907,  gives  both  the  Hebrew  text  and  the  English  translation. 

sWill.  Tyr.,  XX,  1. 


Theodorich,  in  his  "Description  of  Holy  Places,"  c.  1172, 
writes : 

"Tyre  surpasses  all  other  cities  in  the  strength  of  its  towers  and  walls. 
It  has  only  two  entrances  and  these  are  guarded  by  quadruple  gates  with 
towers  on  either  side.  It  has  two  harbors;  the  inner  for  the  ships  of  the 
city,  and  the  outer  for  those  of  foreigners.  Between  the  two  harbors, 
two  towers  built  of  great  masses  of  stone,  project  into  the  sea,  having 
between  them,  by  way  of  a  door,  a  huge  chain  of  iron  .  .  .  this  door 
when  closed  renders  entrance  and  exit  impossible,  but  permits  it  when 
open.    The  city  is  honored  by  being  the  seat  of  a  bishop."^ 

Joannes  Phocas  writes  of  Tyre  in  his  account  of  his  pilgrimage 
in  1185  A.D.: 

"After  this  comes  Tyre  which  surpasses  in  beauty  almost  all  of  the 
cities  of  Phoenicia.  It  is  built  like  Tripolis  upon  a  similar  peninsula,  but 
is  of  very  much  greater  e.xtent,  and  possesses  much  more  majestic  and 
beautiful  buildings  than  the  latter." 

Then  follows  the  tradition  of  the  stone  on  which  the  Savior 
sat,  and  a  description  of  Ras  al-Ain,  reputed  to  be  bottomless. 
Its  overflowing  waters  make  the  meadows  a  mass  of  foliage.^ 

A  very  interesting  account  of  the  conditions  in  Tyre  in  the 
year  1185  A.D.  has  come  down  to  us  from  the  pen  of  the  Arabic 
writer,  Ibn  Jubair.  In  his  account  of  his  travels  he  speaks  of 
Tyre  as  follows: 

"The  city  is  so  well  fortified  as  to  be  a  proverb  for  strength.  ...  Its 
avenues  and  streets  are  cleaner  than  those  of  Acre.  Many  Moslems  live 
here  and  they  are  unmolested  by  the  infidels  (Franks).  The  buildings 
are  very  large  and  commodious.  The  town  is  smaller  than  Acre.  On  the 
land  side  there  are  at  the  entrance  of  the  city  three  gates,  or  may  be  four 
(one  behind  the  other).  .  .  .  The  sea  gate  is  entered  between  two  high 
towers,  and  then  you  come  into  a  port  than  which  there  is  none  more 
wonderful  among  the  maritime  cities.  Surrounding  it  on  three  sides 
are  the  city  walls,  and  the  fourth  side  is  closed  by  a  wall  and  an  archway 
of  mortared  masonry,  and  the  ships  come  in  under  the  archway  and 
anchor.  Between  the  two  towers  before  mentioned  they  stretch  a 
mighty  chain  which  prevents  aught  going  in  or  out,  and  the  ships  can 
only  pass  when  it  is  lowered.    The  port  is  always  closely  guarded."' 

1  P.  P.  T.,  V,  4,  pp.  72-73. 

2  P.  P.  T.,  V,  3,  pp.  10-11. 

» Ibn  Jubair,  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  451.  Vid.  also  LeStrange, 
Palestine  under  the  Moslems,  p.  344. 


Ibn  Jubair,  upon  the  occasion  of  his  visit  to  Tyre,  remained 
eleven  days,  as  he  tells  us,  because  the  boat  upon  which  he  had 
expected  to  sail  seemed  to  him  too  small. 

While  in  the  city  he  witnessed  the  wedding  procession  of 
some  lady  of  high  rank;  his  description  of  the  event  is  of 
interest.  He  says  that  it  was  one  of  the  most  pompous  occasions 
one  could  describe. 

"All  the  Christian  men  and  women  joined  in  the  fete.  They  arranged 
themselves  in  two  lines  before  the  door  of  the  bride.  They  sounded 
trumpets,  flutes  and  all  kinds  of  musical  instruments.  They  thus  at- 
tended the  bride  who  was  conducted  by  two  men,  one  on  either  side,  who 
seemed  to  be  relations.  She  was  splendidly  decked  and  wore  a  magnificent 
gown  of  silk  and  gold.  On  her  head  was  a  diadem  of  gold,  covered  by 
a  bridal  veil  of  golden  lace.  Thus  clad  she  advanced  in  stately  fashion 
as  a  turtle  dove,  or  a  cloud  floating  on  a  breeze.  God  save  us  from  the 
seduction  of  such  a  spectacle!  She  was  preceded  by  Christian  men  clad 
in  gorgeous  flowing  robes,  and  followed  by  Christian  women  in  robes 
equally  beautiful.  .  .  .  The  procession  was  led  by  musicians,  while 
spectators  both  Christian  and  Moslem  stood  everywhere,  looking  on 
without  a  word  of  disapprobation.  The  cortege  went  thus  to  the  house 
of  the  bridegroom  into  which  they  brought  the  bride,  and  where  all 
passed  the  day  in  banqueting.  Such  was  the  magnificent  spectacle 
(God  save  us  from  the  seduction  of  it!)  which  we  by  chance  beheld."^ 

Referring  again  to  his  visit  he  says,  •^"  During  our  sojourn  at 
Tyre  we  found  repose  only  in  a  mosque  which  remains  in  the 
hands  of  our  brethren, — they  have  others  there. "^ 

The  Kingdom  of  Jerusalem  was  in  a  state  of  decline;  and  it 
was  being  attacked  by  one  of  the  most  remarkable  warriors  of 
that  age,  Saladin.  The  Tyrians  had  opportunity  to  know  of 
his  prowess  before  being  called  upon  to  resist  him  at  their  own 
gates;  for  when  he  besieged  Beirut  in  the  summer  of  1182,  a 
fleet  of  thirty-three  galleys  was  made  ready  at  Tyre  and  Acre  to 
go  to  the  rescue  of  the  besieged  city.^  Success  continued  with 
the  arms  of  Saladin.  Meanwhile  William,  Archbishop  of  Tyre, 
was  in  the  west  successfully  appealing  for  reinforcements. 
Conrad,  Marquis  of  Montferrat,  on  his  way  from  Constantinople 
dropped  his  sails  outside  of  the  city  of  Acre,  and  as  it  was  near 

1  Ibn  Jubair,  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  353. 

2  Will.  Tyre,  XXII,  18;  Archer  and  Kingsford,  Crusades,  p.  259. 


sunset,  lay  to  await  the  morning.  But  finding  that  the  city  was 
in  the  hands  of  the  enemy  and  that  his  fleet  was  in  danger  of 
being  captured,  he  sailed  away  in  the  night  to  Tyre.^  He  found 
the  city  at  the  point  of  surrendering  before  what  was  believed 
to  be  the  resistless  might  of  Saladin.  The  citizens  implored  his 
help  in  their  defense.  He  agreed  to  defend  the  city  on  condition 
that  he  should  have  the  rule  over  it  when  he  had  saved  it  from 
the  enemy.  The  conditions  were  accepted  and  the  city  prepared 
for  siege.^ 

"The  sultan,"  in  the  words  of  an  Arabic  historian,  "having 
established  his  supremacy  on  a  firm  basis  both  at  Jerusalem  and 
on  the  coast,  resolved  to  march  against  Tyre,  for  he  knew  that 
if  he  delayed  in  this  undertaking,  it  would  be  very  diflBcult  to 
carry  it  to  a  successful  issue.  He  repaired  first  to  Acre  where  he 
stopped  to  inspect  the  city,  and  then  set  out  for  Tyre  on  Friday 
the  fifth  of  Ramadan  (Nov.  8, 1187).  When  he  came  before  the 
city  he  pitched  his  camp."^ 

Our  Arabic  historian  accounts  for  a  pause  in  the  plans  of 
Saladin  as  "pending  the  arrival  of  his  instruments  of  war."^ 
But  the  historians  on  the  other  side  give  a  different  version. 
William  of  Tyre  tells  us  that  when  Saladin  arrived  with  his 
army,  he  found  the  city  impregnable.  Realizing  the  futility 
of  assault,  he  promised  Conrad  that  if  he  would  surrender  Tyre, 
he  would  release  his  father  whom  he  held  captive.  The  marquis 
responded  that  he  would  not  surrender  the  least  stone  of  Tyre. 
Whereupon  Saladin,  finding  force  and  arts  alike  futile,  withdrew.^ 

1  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  Itinerary  of  Richard  I,  I,  7;  for  an  English  transla- 
tion vid.  Chronicles  of  the  Crusades,  p.  69  ff.,  Lond.,  1848.  Vid.  also  Will. 
Tyr.,  XXIII,  17-18;  Abu  al-Fida,  583.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  57.  Ibn  al- 
Athir,  583.    Vid.  ibid..  Vol.  I,  p.  695. 

^  Jaques  de  Vitry,  P.  P.  T.,  X,  2,  104;  Abu  al-Fida,  583.  Vid.  R.  H.  C. 
Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  57.    Ibn  al-Athir,  538.     Vid.  ibid..  Vol.  I,  p.  696. 

»Bahaal-Din  (1137-1193),  Life  of  Saladin,  P.  P.  T.,  XIII,  120.  Abu  al- 
Fida,  584  (Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  58),  and  Ibn  al-Athir,  583,  give  as  the 
date  Saladin's  arrival,  Nov.  12,  1187.    Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  I,  p.  707. 

*  Baha  al-Din,  P.  P.  T.,  XIII,  120. 

5  Will.  Tyr.,  XXIII,  18.  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf  (I,  7)  yielding  somewhat 
to  imagination  and  as  much  to  prejudice,  says  of  this  event,  "The  Sultan 
besieged  Tyre  but  was  disgracefully  repulsed." 


However  he  soon  reappeared  before  Tyre  and  began  the  siege. 
He  summoned  his  son,  Mahk  al-Zahir,  from  Aleppo.^  As  soon 
as  the  movable  towers  and  engines  of  war  arrived,  they  were  set 
in  position  against  the  walls.  Malik  al-Adil,  brother  of  Saladin, 
was  summoned  from  Jerusalem.^ 

In  order  if  possible  to  avoid  the  hardships  of  siege  and  assault, 
Saladin  brought  forward  Conrad's  father,  whom  he  was  still 
holding  as  a  prisoner,  in  the  hope  that  the  son  would  give  up  the 
city  for  the  life  of  the  father,^  First  he  offered  the  exchange, 
showing  him  his  father  in  chains.  At  once  Conrad  seized  a 
balista  and  shot  a  shaft  in  a  pretended  effort  to  kill  his  father.^ 
When  they  threatened  to  slay  the  father  he  answered  that  by  all 
means  it  should  be  done  not  only  because  of  the  father's  sins 
but  in  order  that  he  might  have  the  honor  of  being  the  son  of  a 

Then  the  assault  of  the  city  began.^  Perrieres  and  mangonals 
began  to  be  used  day  and  night.^  The  Tyrians  made  frequent 
sallies.^  Among  those  who  distinguished  themselves  for  their 
valor  none  was  more  remarkable  than  a  Spanish  warrior  known 
as  the  Green  Knight.  Clad  in  chain  armor  he  wrought  prodigies 
of  valor  and  might  to  the  terror  of  the  Saracens.^ 

The  Franks  from  boats  on  either  side  of  the  isthmus  were 
able  to  fight  effectively  against  the  attacking  army.  Saladin 
therefore  brought  ten  Egyptian  galleys  from  Acre  and  blockaded 
the  port.  The  fleet  was  commanded  by  Al-Faris  Bedran.^  At 
the  request  of  Conrad,  the  count  of  Tripolis  equipped  twenty  gal- 
leys and  sent  them  to  rescue  Tyre,  but  a  storm  drove  them 
back.'^     The  city  was  now  suffering  not  only  from  continued 

1  Baha  al-Din,  P.  P.  T.,  XIII,  120.  Ibn  al-Athir,  583,  says  that  Saladin's 
brother,  Adil,  and  his  two  sons,  Afdal  and  Al-Zahir,  were  present.  Vid.  R. 
H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  708. 

2  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  1, 10.     Will.  Tyr.,  XXIII,  29. 

3  Geof.  de  Vins.,  1, 10.  Gibbon,  Decline  and  Fall,  Edition  of  Milman,  New 
York,  1882,  Vol.  VI,  p.  28  ff. 

^  Will.  Tyr.,  XXIII,  29. 

5  Will.  Tyr.,  XXIII,  29. 

6  Ibn  al-Athir,  583.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  708.  Baha  al-Din,  P.  P. 
T.,  XIII,  120.     Will.  Tyr.,  XXIII,  29. 

7  Will.  Tyr.,  XXIII,  30. 


assaults,  but  from  hunger.  A  letter  from  the  east  to  the  Master 
of  Hospitalers  represents  Tyre  as  on  the  point  of  surrendering 
to  Saladin.  Of  the  besieging  army  the  writer  with  delightful 
exaggeration  says,  "So  great  is  the  multitude  of  the  Saracens 
and  Turks  that  from  Tyre  they  cover  the  face  of  the  earth  as 
far  as  Jerusalem,  like  an  innumerable  army  of  ants."^ 
Baha  al-Din  says : 

"Abd  al-Muhsin,  the  High  Admiral,  had  instructed  the  ships  to  be 
watchful  and  vigilant  that  the  enemy  might  not  find  any  opportunity 
of  doing  them  harm,  but  they  neglected  this  good  advice  and  omitted 
to  keep  a  good  watch  during  the  night.  Therefore  the  infidel  (Crusaders' ) 
fleet  came  out  of  the  harbor  of  Tyre,  fell  upon  them  unawares  and  took 
five  of  their  ships  with  two  captains  and  killed  a  great  number  of  Moslem 

The  other  vessels  were  run  aground  and  destroyed. 

The  Moslem  army,  seeing  the  engagement  by  sea,  supposed 
that  the  walls  had  been  left  without  defenders.  They  there- 
fore attacked  the  town  with  all  haste. ^  Their  troops  were 
scaling  the  walls  when  the  marquis  ordered  the  gates  opened.^ 
Followed  by  Hugh  of  Tiberias  and  other  noble  knights,  he  went 
forth  and  fell  upon  the  astonished  army  with  great  slaughter. 

Saladin  was  much  cast  down  by  the  turn  of  events,^  and  as  it 
was  now  the  beginning  of  winter,  and  torrents  of  rain  were 
falling,  his  troops  could  fight  no  longer.  He  summoned  his 
amirs  to  a  council  of  war,  and  they  advised  to  strike  camp  so  as 
to  give  his  soldiers  a  little  rest,  and  make  preparations  for 
renewing  the  siege  in  the  spring.  He  accepted  the  advice  and 
ordered  the  implements  of  war  dismounted,  and  all  that  could 
not  be  taken  away  to  be  burned.  He  took  his  departure  on  the 
second  of  the  month  Dhu  al-K'ada  in  the  same  year^  (January  3, 

'  D.  C.  Munro,  Original  Sources  of  European  Hist.,  I,  3. 

2  Baha  al-Din,  P.  P.  T.,  XIII,  120;  Abu  al-Fida,  584,  vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or., 
Vol.  I,  p.  58.     Ibn  el-Athir,  583.    Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  I,  p.  709. 

»  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  I,  10.  Will.  Tyr.,  XXIII,  31.  Ibn  al-Athir  appar- 
ently referring  to  this  event,  says  that  the  Franks  made  a  sortie  one  day  and 
an  unusually  hard  battle  followed.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  710. 

*  Jaques  de  Vitry,  P.  P.  T.,  XI,  2,  26. 

6  Baha  al-Din,  P.  P.  T.,  XIII,  122.  Vid.  also  Ibn  al-Athir,  583,  where  the 
date  is  given  as  Jan.  1,  1188.     (R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  710.) 


1188).     Such  is  the  account  of  the  siege  as  given  by  Baha  al-Din. 

When  the  fortress  of  Arnaud  fell,  May  3,  1189,  the  Franks, 
led  by  the  governor  of  Sidon,  came  to  Tyre.^ 

Saladin  was  holding  Guy  de  Lusignan,  King  of  Jerusalem, 
among  his  prisoners.  Perhaps  he  feared  that  a  more  able  prince 
would  be  chosen  to  lead  the  reinforcements  from  the  west,  or  that 
the  presence  of  Guy  would  bring  discord  among  his  foes.  How- 
ever that  may  be,  Saladin  released  Guy  from  his  chains  after 
having  exacted  from  him  a  solemn  oath  that  he  would  renounce 
his  kingdom  and  return  to  Europe.^ 

The  Arabic  historian  Baha  al-Din  gives  an  interesting  account 
of  the  release  of  Guy  and  his  appearance  before  Tyre.     He  says: 

"The  Sultan  had  promised  to  set  the  King  of  Jerusalem  at  liberty  on 
his  ceding  Ascalon  to  him,  and  as  the  king  had  caused  his  officers  to 
surrender  this  place,  and  demanded  to  be  released,  the  Sultan  suffered 
him  to  depart  from  Antarsus  (Antaradus)  where  he  had  been  kept 
prisoner.^  ,  .  .  Among  the  conditions  imposed  upon  the  king  was  that 
he  should  never  again  draw  sword  against  him,  and  should  always  con- 
sider himself  the  servant  and  bondman  of  his  liberator.  The  King  (God 
curse  him!)  broke  his  word  and  collected  forces  with  which  he  marched 
to  Tyre."" 

But  Conrad  had  ambitions  of  his  own.  At  this  time  there  was  a 
brilliant  company  of  Crusaders  in  the  city,  for  Saladin  had 
allowed  the  Franks  from  the  cities  that  fell  into  his  hands  to 
depart  with  their  wealth  to  Tyre.^  The  Tyrians  were  not  willing 
to  forsake  the  standards  of  a  leader  who  had  saved  their  city  in 
an  hour  of  extreme  peril,  to  follow  the  command  of  one  who  had 
been  unable  to  keep  his  kingdom. 

"As  he  was  unable  to  gain  admittance  to  the  city,  he  camped  outside 
the  walls  and  entered  into  negotiations  with  the  marquis  (Conrad).  .  .  . 

1  Baha  al-Din,  585.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  397  ff.  This  fortress  was 
on  the  Orontes,  18  miles  N.  E.  of  Tyre.     (R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  395.) 

2  W.  Robson,  Michaud's  History  of  the  Crusades,  I,  p.  453. 

'  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  I,  26,  says  that  Guy  was  released  from  Damascus 
where  he  had  been  kept  prisoner  for  a  year  and  that  "he  was  released  from 
the  bond  of  his  oath  by  the  clergy." 

^  Baha  al-Din,  P.  P.  T.,  XIII,  144. 

6  Ibn  al-Athir,  585.     Vid  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  II,  p.  3. 


The  marqujs,  a  man  accursed  of  God,  was  an  important  personaeje,  dis- 
tinguished by  his  good  judgment,  the  energy  and  decision  of  his  character, 
and  his  religious  zeal.  .  .  .  Finally  an  aUiance  was  made,  but  the  king's 
army  remained  outside  of  Tyre."^ 

However  there  were  those  in  the  city  who  favored  the  cause 
of  Guy  and  resented  the  position  of  the  marquis.  This  was 
notably  true  of  the  Pisans  who  held  no  small  part  of  the  city. 
These  with  others  withdrew  and  joined  the  king's  army.^ 

Then  the  marquis  fell  ill,  and  fearing  that  he  had  been  poisoned, 
he  issued  a  harsh  edict  against  the  physicians.  Innocent  men 
were  put  to  death  upon  suspicion.  The  king  was  urged  to 
attack  the  city.  Instead  he  assembled  all  his  forces  (not  more 
than  9000  men)  and  marched  against  Acre,  the  siege  of  which 
began  in  August,  1189.^ 

English,  German  and  French  recruits  in  large  numbers 
reached  Acre,  many  of  them  landing  first  at  Tyre;  and  the 
marquis  was  induced  to  support  the  siege  with  a  fleet  from  Tyre.^ 
However,  he  withdrew  secretly  at  a  time  inopportune  for  the 
besiegers,  and  the  besieged  city  enjoyed  open  connection  with 
the  sea,  if  we  may  believe  an  historian  not  friendly  to  him.^ 
After  a  time  he  was  induced  to  return  with  his  fleet  by  the 
promise  that  in  return  for  his  loyal  support,  Tyre,  Sidon  and 
Beirut  would  be  given  to  him.  The  Christian  forces  then  won 
a  great  sea  fight  off  the  coast  of  Acre.^ 

While  the  siege  of  Acre  was  in  progress  an  event  occurred 
which  brought  sorrow  to  the  hearts  of  the  Crusaders.  The 
Emperor  Frederick  Barbarossa  of  Germany  perished  in  the  waters 
of  the  River  Selef .^    Bereft  of  their  mighty  leader,  only  a  remnant 

1  Baha  al-Din,  P.  P.  T.,  XIII,  144. 

2  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  I,  26.  This  account  shows  strong  pro-English  and 
anti-French  feelings.  He  was  clearly  an  eye-witness  of  many  of  the  thrilling 
scenes  he  recounts. 

» Ibid.,  I,  29. 

*  Ibid.,  I,  33. 

» Ibid.,  I,  34. 

«  Robson,  Michaud's  History  of  the  Crusades,  1,449;  Sepp,  Meerfahrt  nach 
Tyrus,  p.  280.  The  Selef  is  a  small  but  swift  stream  flowing  near  Seleucia 
(Selevkia,  Selef kia),  port  of  Antioch. 


of  his  conquering  army  succeeded  in  reaching  Acre.  The  body 
of  Frederick  was  taken  to  Tyre  and  laid  to  rest  in  the  Crusaders' 
Church  there.^ 

The  marquis,  Conrad,  aspired  to  the  throne  of  the  Kingdom  of 
Jerusalem.  When  Sybilla,  wife  of  Guy,  died,  the  next  heir  in 
royal  lineage  was  Isabel,  wife  of  Humphry  of  Toron.  The 
marquis  induced  her  to  forsake  her  husband  and  marry  him. 
He  then  claimed  that,  as  Guy  had  been  king  only  by  virtue  of  his 
marriage,  and  as  his  royal  wife  was  now  dead,  the  throne  now 
rightly  belonged  to  himself  and  Isabel.  The  pilgrims,  especially 
the  English,  were  much  displeased,  but  could  do  nothing,  for 
Tyre  was  the  only  place  at  which  they  could  secure  provisions.^ 

While  the  fearful  siege  of  Acre  was  in  progress,  the  crusading 
forces  were  quarrelling  about  the  tottering  throne.^  Both 
Richard,  King  of  England,  and  Philip,  King  of  France,  had 
part  in  the  siege.  The  king  of  England  favored  the  claim  of 
Guy  while  the  king  of  France  favored  that  of  Conrad.  It  was 
finally  agreed  that,  as  the  marquis  was  heir  to  the  throne  by 
marriage,  he  should  have  the  government  of  Tyre,  Sidon  and 
Beirut  with  the  title  of  Count.  It  was  further  agreed  that, 
should  Guy  die  first,  the  crown  should  go  to  Conrad,  but  in  the 
event  of  the  death  of  the  marquis  and  his  wife.  King  Richard 
should  have  the  disposal  of  the  throne  if  he  were  in  those  parts.'* 

Acre  fell  July  12,  1191.^  Shortly  after  its  fall,  Philip  returned 
to  France,  but  the  discord  between  the  English  and  French 
forces  continued.  The  king  of  England  summoned  the  marquis 
to  go  to  Acre,  taking  with  him  the  hostages  that  had  been  en- 

1  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist,  of  the  Crusades,  I,  p.  449.  Excavations  by 
Sepp  and  Grutz  in  1874  at  the  cost  of  the  German  government  failed  to  locate 
his  tomb.  Vid.  Conder  and  Kitchener,  Survey  of  Western  Palestine,  I,  p.  74. 

2  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  I,  64;  Anon.,  Chron.  de  Terre  Sainte,  I,  51.  Vid. 
Pub.  Soc.  Orient  Lat.,  Serie  Hist.,  Vol.  V,  p.  14. 

^  Richard  of  Divizes,  Chronicle  of  Richard,  69. — For  English  translation 
vid.  Chronicles  of  the  Crusaders,  London,  1848.  Jaquesde  Vitry,  P.  P.  T.,  X, 
2,  110. 

^  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  III,  20. 

^  Archer  and  Kingsford,  The  Crusades,  p.  326.  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist, 
of  the  Crusades,  I,  p.  481. 


trusted  to  him,  that  they  might  be  ransomed.  He  refused  to 
put  himself  into  the  hands  of  Richard.  A  second  embassy 
demanded  that  he  appear  and  give  active  aid  in  estabhshing 
the  kingdom  whose  throne  he  sought,  and  that  he  cease  hindering 
those  who  would  bring  provision  from  Tyre  to  the  Christian 
army  at  Acre.  The  embassy  succeeded  only  in  securing  the 
hostages  to  be  ransomed.     The  marquis  remained  at  Tyre.^ 

The  Crusaders  elsewhere  took  sides  in  this  dispute.  In  Acre 
the  Pisans,  who  favored  Guy,  and  the  Genoese,  adherents  of 
Conrad,  came  to  arms.  The  Genoese  sent  to  the  marquis 
asking  him  to  come  at  once,  and  prepared  to  deliver  over  the 
city  to  him.  The  marquis  came  with  his  galleys  and  a  force  of 
armed  men  under  the  command  of  the  Duke  of  Burgundy. 
While  the  Pisans  were  withstanding  these,  they  sent  to  Richard 
who  was  at  Caesarea.  He  hurried  forward,  and  upon  learning 
of  his  approach,  Conrad  hastened  back  to  Tyre  with  his  fleet, 
while  the  Duke  of  Burgundy  withdrew  with  the  soldiers  by 

In  this  division  each  side  feared  that  the  other  would  make 
alliance  with  the  forces  of  Saladin.^ 

As  Tyre  was  the  center  of  the  French  influence,  so  Ascalon 
became  the  center  of  the  English.  French  soldiers  who  had 
remained  in  the  army  of  Richard  were  summoned  by  the  marquis 
to  leave  Ascalon  and  report  at  Tyre  in  accordance  with  their 
oath  of  allegiance  to  the  king  of  France.^  Seven  hundred  men 
obeyed  the  summons  in  spite  of  the  entreaties  of  Richard.^ 

In  Tyre  the  soldiers  reveled  in  luxury  and  wantonness.  They 
decked  themselves  in  jewels  and  gold,  and  abandoned  themselves 
to  dancing  women,  amatory  songs,  wine  and  prostitutes.^ 

»  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  IV,  3. 

2  Ibid.,  V,  10;  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist,  of  the  Crusades,  I,  p.  493. 

'  Archer  and  Kingsford,  The  Crusades,  pp.  327  ff.  Vid.  also  Geof.  de  Vin., 
V,  24;  Will.  Tyr.,  XXIV,  14;  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist,  of  the  Crusades,  I, 
p.  493. 

*  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  V,  13. 

6  Ibid.,  V,  14. 

« Ibid.,  V,  20.  The  immoralities  of  many  of  the  Crusaders  were  a  standing 
reproach  to  Christendom;  but  see  note  2  on  page  108  above. 


In  the  spring  of  1192  news  of  grave  disorders  reached  Richard, 
and  made  it  imperative  that  he  should  return  to  England  as  soon 
as  possible.^  He  called  a  conference  of  the  nobles  and  asked 
whether  they  wished  Conrad  or  Guy  to  hold  the  kingdom.  It  was 
recognized  that  continuation  of  the  division  meant  the  loss  of  all. 
It  was  felt  that  Guy  had  not  shown  himself  strong  enough  to 
conquer.  Therefore  "the  whole  army,  high  and  low,  entreated 
on  their  bended  knees  that  the  marquis  should  have  the  throne," 
much  to  the  disgust  of  the  historian  quoted.^ 

Richard  assented,  though  reluctantly.  A  decree  of  unanimous 
election  was  issued,  and  men  of  high  rank  were  sent  to  notify 
the  marquis  of  the  good  news.^ 

Upon  receiving  the  news,  the  marquis  was  much  pleased. 
Tyre  was  filled  with  rejoicing:  preparations  were  made  for  a 
coronation  worthy  of  the  city.^  Other  cities  prepared  to  cooper- 
ate, for  it  was  everywhere  seen  that  the  settlement  of  the  internal 
strife  was  essential  to  the  life  of  the  kingdom. 

But  on  Monday,  April  27th,  Conrad  went  to  dine  with  Philip, 
Bishop  of  Beauvais.  As  he  returned  from  the  bishop's  house, 
two  men  met  him  in  the  way,  one  of  whom  offered  him  a  letter. 
While  he  was  thus  off  his  guard,  the  two  young  men,  "Assassins," 
stabbed  him  with  daggers  and  ran  off  at  full  speed.  The  marquis 
fell  from  his  horse  and  rolled  dying  upon  the  ground.  One  of 
the  Assassins  was  slain  at  once :  the  other  took  shelter  in  a  church 
but  was  brought  forth  and  condemned  to  be  dragged  through  the 
city  until  dead.  Before  dying  he  confessed,  according  to  de 
Vinsauf,  that  the  crime  had  been  committed  at  the  order  of  the 
Old  Man  of  the  Mountains.^ 

1  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  V,  22. 

2  Ibid.,  V,  23. 

3  Ibid.,  V,  24. 
*  Ibid.,  V,  25. 

^  For  an  account  of  this  and  of  the  practises  of  the  Old  Man  of  the  Moun- 
tains and  his  sect  of  Assassins,  see  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  V,  26;  Will.  Tyr., 
I,  14,  19,  20,  21;  Joinville's  Memoirs  of  Louis  IX.— Vid.  Chron.  of  Cru- 
sades, pp.  470  ff.;Macdonald,  Muslim  Theology,  pp.  49,  169-170;  Encyc.  of 
Islam  (Lej^den  and  London,  1913-        ),  s.  v.  Assassins. 

Ibn  al-Athir  in  his  account  states  that  one  of  the  Assassins  fled  into  a  church, 


While  Conrad  was  dying,  attendants  carried  him  into  his 
palace  where  he  soon  expired.  Intense  gloom  filled  the  city 
that  so  lately  had  been  filled  with  joy.^ 

An  ugly  rumor  was  spread  abroad  that  the  king  of  England 
had  instigated  the  assassination.^  Ibn  al-Athir  states  that 
Saladin  had  hired  Sinan,  chief  of  the  "Assassins,"  offering  him 
ten  thousand  pieces  of  gold  to  have  Richard  and  Conrad  both 
slain;  but  the  chief  did  not  wish  both  Richard  and  Conrad  out 
of  the  way  lest  Saladin  should  turn  against  him.  However,  he 
ordered  the  death  of  Conrad.^ 

Baha  al-Din's  account  of  the  death  of  Conrad  is  as  follows: 

"On  the  sixth  of  the  month  Rabi'a  II  (May  1,  1192),  we  received  a 
dispatch  from  our  envoy  accredited  to  the  marquis,  announcing  that 
the  prince  had  been  assassinated,  and  his  soul  hurled  by  God  into  hell-fire. 
It  came  about  in  the  following  manner:  On  Tuesday,  the  13th  of  the 
month,  he  dined  with  the  bishop,  and  left  with  a  very  small  escort.  Two 
of  his  servants  then  rushed  upon  him  and  kept  stabbing  him  with  their 
daggers  till  life  left  the  body.  They  were  at  once  arrested  and  questioned, 
when  they  declared  that  they  had  been  hired  by  the  king  of  England. 
Two  of  the  marquis's  officers  assumed  command  in  chief,  and  provided 
for  the  protection  of  the  citadel,  until  further  information  of  the  occurrence 
could  reach  the  Christian  princes.  Matters  were  then  arranged  and 
order  was  restored  in  the  city."* 

After  the  burial  of  the  marquis,  the  French  who  lived  outside 
of  the  city  to  the  number  of  about  ten  thousand,  demanded  of 
the  widow  that  the  city  be  given  them  for  the  service  of  the 
king  of  France.^     She  refused  to  do  this,  saying  that,  in  accord- 

and  that  Conrad  was  carried  into  the  church  that  his  wounds  might  be  attended 
to,  whereupon  the  Assassin  sprang  upon  him  and  stabbed  him  to  death. 

1  Will.  Tyr.,  XXIV,  14;Robson,  Michaud's  Hist,  of  the  Crusades,  I,  p.  494. 

2  Will.  Tyr.,  XXIV,  14;  Geoffrey  de  Vins.,  V,  26;  Richard  of  Devizes,  95. 
Whether  the  rumor  had  its  origin  in  fact  or  in  suspicion  of  the  French  cannot 
be  known.  Gibbon  says,  "  I  cannot  believe  that  a  soldier  so  fearless  and  free 
with  his  lance  as  Richard,  would  have  descended  to  whet  a  dagger  against 
his  valiant  brother,  Conrad  de  Montferrat."  Decline  and  Fall,  Edition  of  Mil- 
man,  Vol.  VI,  p.  32.  Vid.  also  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist,  of  the  Crusades,  I, 
p.  495,  and  Archer  and  Kingsford,  The  Crusades,  p.  340. 

'  Ibn  al-Athir,  588.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  II,  pp.  58-59. 

*  Baha  al-Din,  P.  P.  T.,  XIII,  332-333. 

*  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  V,  28.     Archer  and  Kingsford,  The  Crusades,  p.  341. 


ance  with  her  husband's  dying  wish,  she  should  yield  the  city 
only  to  the  king  of  England.  There  was  uncertainty  as  to 
whether  English  or  French  influence  would  dominate.  However, 
almost  at  once  Count  Henry  of  Campagne  arrived  at  Tyre  and 
the  people  forthwith  chose  him  as  their  prince,  "  as  though  he 
had  been  sent  of  God."^  They  entreated  him  to  marry  the 
widow  who  was  rightful  heir  to  the  kingdom,  and  accept  the 
crown.  The  matter  was  so  arranged  and  the  same  ambassadors 
that  carried  to  Richard  the  formal  notice  of  the  assassination  of 
the  marquis,  carried  also  the  news  of  the  solemn  election  of 
Count  Henry  by  all  the  people.^  Henry  withheld  his  consent 
to  the  plan  until  the  mind  of  Richard  should  be  known.  Richard 
gave  his  consent,^  and  the  wedding  was  solemnized  in  the  presence 
of  the  clergy  and  the  laity.  The  nuptials  were  celebrated  with 
royal  magnificence.  The  city  was  full  of  joy,  and  as  the  count 
was  the  nephew  of  both  the  king  of  England  and  the  king  of 
France,  happier  times  were  hoped  for  and  a  return  of  peace  and 

Having  left  proper  persons  in  charge  of  affairs  at  Tyre,  Henry 
went  forth  to  campaign  for  the  recovery  of  the  kingdom  from 
the  Turks.^  He  accomplished  but  little;  however  by  the  terms  of 
peace  arranged  by  Richard  and  Saladin,  which  marked  the  end 
of  this  Crusade,  the  coast  from  Tyre  to  Jaffa  remained  in  the 
hands  of  the  Crusaders.^  Richard  sailed  for  England  almost  at 
once.     The  death  of  Saladin  occurred  in  1193.^ 

Tyre  had  suffered  greatly  in  her  commercial  and  industrial 
life.  Her  prosperity  had  always  rested  on  her  manufacturing 
and  commerce.  But  as  a  Christian  city  she  could  have  no 
great  commerce  with  the  Saracens  by  land,  and  the  Genoese 
and  Egyptians  held  the  preeminence  in  the  seas.  It  is  evident 
that  Tyre  still  had  her  slave  market,  for  when  Conrad  was 

1  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  V,  28,  34. 

2  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIV,  15;  Ibn  al-Athir,  588.  Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  II, 
p.  59. 

3  Geoffrey  de  Vinsauf,  V,  36. 

*  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist,  of  the  Crusades,  I,  p.  500. 
5  Will.  Tyr.,  XXVI,  17. 


holding  the  city,  "  the  king  of  France  sold  to  him  all  his  captives 
alive."^     Tyre  had  also  her  mint.^ 

In  the  year  588  A.  H.  (1192-1193)  a  troop  of  cavalry  from  Tyre 
reinforced  by  fifty  men  from  Acre,  made  a  raid  on  Moslem  terri- 
tory but  the  soldiers  charged  with  guarding  this  territory  fell  on 
them  and  killed  fifteen,  and  the  troops  fled  back  to  Tyre.^ 

After  the  death  of  Saladin,  the  strife  among  his  successors 
was  such  that  the  Christian  cities  remained  undisturbed  for  a 
time.  However,  a  new  Crusade  had  been  preached  in  the  west. 
Large  numbers  of  German  Crusaders  began  to  arrive  at  Acre. 
Counsels  of  prudence  were  unavailing  to  restrain  the  new  warri- 
ors, and  their  aggressions  were  quickly  returned.  In  1197  Jaffa 
fell  before  Malik  al-Adil.^ 

The  Crusaders  determined  to  attack  the  city  of  Beirut. 
In  this  place  were  gathered  large  numbers  of  Frank  captives  and 
here  was  stored  vast  plunder  gathered  by  piracy  upon  the 
Christian  shipping.  The  armies  of  the  Saracens  and  the 
Crusaders  met  on  the  plain  between  Tyre  and  Sidon  at  the  river 
Eleutherus,  and  after  a  hard-fought  contest,  victory  rested  with 
the  Crusaders.  The  opposing  army  was  broken  and  put  to  rout. 
Sidon,  Laodicea  and  Gebal,  as  well  as  Beirut,  with  vast  stores 
of  provisions  and  plunder,  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Christians.^ 

The  only  possession  on  the  coast  between  Ascalon  and  Antioch 
now  left  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy  was  the  strong  castle  of 
Toron,  near  Tyre.  Moslem  troops  from  this  fortress  had 
marched  against  Tyre  and  laid  waste  her  dependent  territory.^ 
The  Crusaders  decided  to  besiege  it  and  to  this  end  set  forth 
from  Tyre.'^  The  castle  on  its  lofty  height  was  almost  impreg- 
nable. Saxon  miners  finally  succeeded  in  cutting  passages  under 
the  walls  and  the  defenders  began  to  despair.     They  were  ready 

'  Richard  of  Devizes,  69. 

2  Baha  al-Din,  in  Rec.  Hist.  Crois.  Orient.,  Ill,  8,  19,  101. 

3  Baha  al-Din,  588. 

*  Will.  Tyr.,  XXVII,  4. 

5  Arnold  of  Leubeck,  V,  3;  Roger  de  Hoveden,  722;  Abu  al-Fida,  594.  Vid. 
R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  74. 

8  Ibn  al-Athir,  593.     Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  II,  p.  87. 

^  Ibn  al-Athir,  593,  gives  the  date  of  the  attack  upon  Toron,  Dec.  13,  1197. 


to  surrender  and  would  have  done  so  had  they  beheved  their  lives 
safe  in  the  hands  of  the  victors.  Fearing  for  their  lives,  they 
fought  with  the  courage  of  despair.  There  was  division  in  the 
councils  of  the  besiegers.  Rumors  that  Malik  al-Adil  at  the  head 
of  an  army  was  coming  to  avenge  his  former  defeat  led  the 
leaders  to  a  decision  to  raise  the  siege.  They  deceived  their  own 
soldiers  by  withdrawing  in  the  night.  The  next  day  the  army 
in  great  confusion  retreated  to  Tyre.^  Recriminations  followed. 
The  Germans  withdrew  to  Joppa  and  many  of  them  were  recalled 
to  Germany  within  a  short  time;  the  rest  were  surprised  and 
massacred.^     For  a  few  years  the  coast  cities  had  peace. 

It  was  in  the  same  year  as  the  siege  of  the  fortress  that  Henry 
died  and  Amalric  of  Cyprus  became  king  of  Jerusalem,  by 
marrying  the  queen.^ 

In  the  year  1201  (May  7- June  4)  a  destructive  earthquake 
affected  Tyre.^  Another  earthquake  in  600  A.  H.  (1203-1204) 
ruined  the  wall  surrounding  the  city.^ 

When  Amalric  died  in  1205,®  the  throne  passed  to  Mary,  the 
eldest  daughter  of  Isabel  by  Conrad  of  Tyre.  Upon  invitation 
the  king  of  France  chose  John  de  Brienne  as  her  husband. 
Attended  by  three  hundred  knights  he  arrived  at  Acre,  September 
14,  1210.     A  week  later  he  was  crowned  with  his  bride  at  Tyre.^ 

In  1217  the  soldiers  of  a  new  Crusade  arrived  at  Acre,  led  by 
the  king  of  Hungary.  Attaching  importance  to  pilgrimages  as 
well  as  to  war,  these  Crusaders  in  December  went  to  visit  the 
holy  places  of  Tyre  and  Sidon.     They  were  attacked  by  Moslem 

1  Arnold  of  Lubeck,  VI,  4-5;  Roger  de  Hoveden,  773;  Robson,  Michaud's 
Hist,  of  the  Crusades,  II,  pp.  23-38;  Ibn  al-Athir,  593;  Mills,  Hist.  Cm.,  pp. 

2  November  11,  1196.  Mills,  Hist.  Cru.,  p.  172;  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist. 
Crusades,  II,  p.  29. 

3  Ibn  al-Athir,  593.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  II,  p.  88.    Will.  Tyr.,  II,  16. 
^  Ibn  al-Athir,  597.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  II,  p.  90. 

*  Ibid.,  600.  Vid.  ibid.,  Vol.  II,  p.  96.  Abu  al-Fida,  600.  Vid.  ibid.,  Vol. 
I,  p.  83. 

6  Will.  Tyr.,  XXX,  11. 

'  Sanutus,  205-206;  Archer  and  Kingsford,  The  Crusades,  p.  373;  Chron. 
de  Terre  Sainte,  I,  67,  Pub.  Soc.  Orient  Lat.,  Serie  Hist.,  V,  18. 


forces  who  cut  down  great  numbers  of  them.  Others  perished 
from  cold,  and  only  a  few  got  back  to  Acre.^ 

In  the  spring  reinforcements  came  from  the  west  and  an 
attack  upon  Damietta,  as  the  key  to  Egypt,  was  determined 
upon.  The  war  was  continued  until  1221,  and  was  concluded 
upon  terms  unfavorable  to  the  Christians.^ 

The  following  facts  explain  a  further  long  contest  between  the 
warring  factions  of  Crusaders,  in  which  Tyre  was  repeatedly  in- 
volved. Isabelle,  daughter  of  John  Brienne,  was  heir  to  the  throne 
through  her  mother  Mary.  Alice  of  Cyprus  also  claimed  the 
throne,  and  her  cause  was  favored  by  John  of  Ibelin  and  his 
brother,  Philip  of  Ibelin.  At  the  appeal  of  John  Brienne,  the 
Pope  authorized  the  marriage  of  Emperor  Frederick  of  Germany 
to  Isabelle.  Frederick  arrived  at  Acre  in  1225,  and  preparations 
were  made  for  the  marriage  and  coronation.  He  proceeded  to 
Tyre  where  the  marriage  and  coronation  were  solemnized  by 
Simon,  Archbishop  of  Tyre.  The  wedding  festivities  continued 
fifteen  days,  and  then  Isabelle  bid  farewell  to  "sweet  Syria" 
and  sailed  for  the  west  with  Frederick.^ 

In  1229  Emperor  Frederick  of  Germany  returned  at  the  head 
of  a  new  army  of  Crusaders.^  With  Frederick  was  his  little  son, 
Conrad,  who  was  heir  to  the  throne  of  Jerusalem.  They  came  to 
Tyre  and  were  welcomed  amid  great  rejoicing.  Frederick  made 
peace  with  the  Moslems  on  February  12,  1229.  The  interests 
of  his  kingdom  soon  required  him  to  return  to  the  west.  He 
therefore  made  Richard  Philanger  lord  of  Tyre  to  hold  it  in  his 
stead.  ^ 

But  John  of  Ibelin,  lord  of  Beirut,  laid  claim  to  the  crown  of 

1  Will.   Tyr.,   XXXI,   10-12;  Anon.,   Gesta  Crucigerorum  Rhenanorum, 

Pub.  Soc.  Orient  Lat.,  Ser.  Hist.,  II,  p.  35;  Vincentius  Bellovacensis  ( 

1144),  Pub.  Soc.  Orient  Lat.,  Ser.  Hist.,  Ill,  99. 

2  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXII,  16. 

Anon.,  Chron.  Terre  Sainte,  I,  82-91,  Pub.  Soc.  Orient  Lat.,  Ser.  Hist., 
V,  21-23.  Philippe  de  Navaire,  Estoire  de  la  Guere  entre  TEmperor  Frederic 
et  John  d'  Ibelin,  116,  Pub.  Soc.  Orient  Lat.,  Ser.  Hist.,  V,  33. 

*Will.  Tyr.,  XXXII,  16;  Philippe  Navau-e,  137;  Vid.  Pub.  Soc.  Orient 
Lat.,  Ser.  Hist.,  V,  48;  Ibn  al-Athir,  625.     Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  II,  p.  171. 

'  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIII,  8;  PhU.  Nav.,  205. 


Jerusalem.  He  went  to  Acre  and  sought  aid  against  Tyre. 
Men  and  provisions  were  furnished  by  the  Genoese,  and  with 
these  he  besieged  Tyre  by  land  and  by  sea:  but  in  a  short  time 
troubles  elsewhere  caused  him  to  raise  the  siege.^ 

When  John  of  Ibelin  besieged  and  captured  the  Chateau 
Cherines  in  Cyprus,  those  who  wished  to  go  to  Tyre  were  given 
safe  conduct  for  themselves  and  their  possessions.  At  Tyre  an 
exchange  of  prisoners  was  arranged.  John  exchanged  Tyrian 
prisoners  held  at  Acre  for  prisoners  held  at  Tyre  by  Richard.^ 

At  a  later  time  Richard  withdrew  from  Tyre,  leaving  his 
brother  Lotier  to  guard  the  city.^  Belian  of  Sidon  and  Philip 
of  Toron  assembled  forces  at  Acre  against  Tyre.^  Raoul  de 
Soissons,  husband  of  Alice  of  Cyprus  who  claimed  to  be  right- 
ful queen,  proceeded  to  Tyre.  The  forces  of  Belian  and 
Philip  appeared  before  the  city  and,  after  a  battle,  the  city  sur- 
rendered.^ Richard  returned  only  to  fall  into  the  hands  of 
Belian  and  Philip.^  John  of  Ibelin  attempted  in  vain  to  take 
the  city.''  Raoul  de  Soissons  came  to  Tyre  and  demanded  of 
Belian  and  Philip  that  the  city  be  given  to  him  and  to  his  queen 
to  hold  with  the  other  places  of  the  kingdom,  but  they  refused 
to  recognize  his  claim.^  In  the  final  adjustment,  BeHan  of  Sidon 
withdrew  and  Philip  held  Tyre. 

At  the  same  time  there  was  a  continued  struggle  between  the 
Moslem  forces,  of  Egypt  and  Damascus.  At  length  in  1240 
Isma'il,  who  was  in  power  at  Damascus,  fearing  that  he  would 
not  be  able  alone  to  resist  Ayyub  of  Egypt,  sought  alliance 
with  the  Crusaders  against  his  co-religionists.^  Upon  learning 
of  this  Ayyub  summoned  the  Kharesmians,  a  wild  Turkish  tribe 
from  the  region  of  the  Tigris,  to  come  to  his  aid.     These  coming 

1  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIII,  20-35. 

2  Phil.  Nav.,  209. 

3  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIII,  52;  Phil.  Nav.,  224. 
^  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIII,  52;  Phil.  Nav.,  227. 
5  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIII,  52;  Phil.  Nav.,  227. 
« Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIII,  55;  Phil.  Nav.,  228. 
'  Phil.  Nav.,  228. 

8  Will.  Tyr.,  XXIII,  53;  PhiL  Nav.,  230. 

9  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIII,  48. 


wrought  great  havoc.  They  captured  Jerusalem  in  1244  and 
desecrated  holy  places  with  acts  of  mockery  and  cruelty.^ 

The  desecration  of  Jerusalem  and  the  aggression  of  the  Sultan 
of  Egypt  were  the  call  for  a  new  Crusade,  which  was  led  by  Louis 
IX  of  France,  1248-1254. 

In  all  these  stirring  events  Tyre  had  almost  no  part.  She 
was  held  by  the  Crusaders,  but  the  great  bulk  of  the  commerce 
and  wealth  had  been  transfered  to  Acre.  These  contests  were 
almost  wholly  land  contests,  whereas  her  strength  to  bear  arms 
was  always  on  the  sea.  There  were  no  inducements  for  her 
enemies  to  molest  her  while  the  difficulties  of  success  were  so 
great,  and  the  promise  of  plunder  so  small  as  compared  with 
other  cities. 

The  Crusade  of  Louis  IX  was  directed  first  against  Egypt. 
After  his  capture  and  ransom,  he  visited  and  fortified  Joppa, 
Acre  and  Sidon.^  Before  sailing  for  Europe,  he  paid  a  passing 
visit  to  Tyre  of  which  Sir  Philip  de  Montfort  was  lord.  ^ 

The  presence  of  Louis  restored  a  temporary  peace  among  the 
Crusaders,  but  after  his  departure  it  was  soon  broken.  Philip 
secured  the  service  of  fifty-two  Genoese  vessels  against  Acre 
(c.  1258),^  while  he  marched  at  the  head  of  a  small  land  force.^ 
Seeing  the  fleet  worsted,  Philip  returned  to  Tyre.^ 

Anarchistic  conditions  continued.  In  1260  a  naval  battle 
was  fought  off  the  coast  of  Tyre  by  Venetian  and  Genoese  fleets.^ 
In  the  same  year  Julian,  lord  of  Sidon,  had  a  quarrel  with  Philip 
and  ravaged  the  country  round  Tyre.^ 

The  struggles  of  rival  amirs  for  supremacy  in  Egypt  gave  the 
Christian  cities  of  the  coast  a  brief  respite  from  Moslem  attacks 

1  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIII,  56;  Chron.  du  Temple  de  Tyr.,  252,  Pub.  Soc.  Orient 
Lat.,  Ser.  Hist.,  Vol.  V,  p.  245. 

2  Joinville,  Memoires,  358;  vid.  Chron.  of  Crusades,  p.  506. 

3  Ibid. 

*  Phil.  Nav.,  281. 
6  Phil.  Nav.,  283. 
« Phil.  Nav.,  284-285. 
^  Phil.  Nav.,  288. 

8  Anon.,  Chron.  Tempi,  de  Tyr.,  304,  Pub.  Soc.  Orient  Lat.,  Ser.  Hist.,  V, 
p.  163. 


in  the  years  immediately  following  the  departure  of  Louis  IX. 
But  in  1260  a  new  danger  threatened  Moslems  and  Christians 
alike.  In  that  year  Hulagu,  at  the  head  of  a  horde  of  Mongols, 
invaded  Syria.^  The  Christians  looked  upon  them  at  first  as 
allies  against  the  Moslems,  Later  when  Hulagu  had  with- 
drawn, leaving  Kitbugha  in  command,  hostilities  broke  out,  and 
war  was  declared  against  the  Christians.  Sidon  was  laid  in 
ruins  and  Acre  was  threatened.  The  Mongols,  unable  to  with- 
stand the  Moslems  of  Egypt,  withdrew.  Then  the  command 
of  Egypt  passed  into  the  hands  of  Baibars.  The  Christian  cities 
soon  saw  his  military  genius  and  power;  they  knew  also  their 
own  weakness  and  therefore  sought  peace.  Baibars  took 
advantage  of  their  rivalries.  When  he  had  determined  upon 
attacking  the  city  of  Acre,  the  lord  of  Tyre  together  with  the 
Genoese,  was  to  move  against  the  city  with  a  great  fleet  while 
he  made  his  land  attack.^  Baibars  appeared  with  his  army  but 
his  new  allies  did  not  keep  their  agreement,  and  he  withdrew  in 
great  rage. 

Although  the  victorious  arms  of  Baibars  should  have  served 
as  a  warning  of  the  fast  approaching  end  of  the  Kingdom  of 
Jerusalem,  the  Christian  cities  continued  to  fight  against  each 
other.  In  1264  fifty  Venetian  galleys  besieged  Tyre  of  which 
Philip  of  Montfort  was  still  lord.  In  its  defense  the  city  had 
aid  from  the  favorable  faction  at  Acre.  When  the  Venetians 
saw  that  they  could  not  take  the  city,  they  withdrew.  The 
Genoese  succeeded  in  capturing  the  supplies  from  Venice,  which 
had  been  sent  for  the  galleys  of  their  rivals.^ 

The  fortress  of  Arnaud  fell  again  before  the  Moslems  on  April 
12,  1268,  and  the  Christian  inhabitants  were  allowed  to  withdraw 
to  Tyre^  as  in  1189. 

Baibars  made  a  hostile  visit  to  Tyre  in  667  (1268-1269),  ac- 
cording to  an  Arabic  historian,  under  the  following  circumstances. 
As  he  was  returning  from  Damascus  to  Egypt,  a  woman  met  him 

1  Chron.  Temp.  Tyr.,  299,  P.  S.  O.  L.,  V,  160. 

*  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist,  of  the  Crusades,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  13. 
»  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIV,  4. 

*  Bedr  al-Din,  666.    Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  II,  p.  177. 


and  complained  that  her  son  had  been  in  Tyre  and  that  the 
lord  of  the  Franks  in  that  city  had  traitorously  arrested  him  and 
put  him  to  death,  taking  his  provisions.  The  Sultan  directed 
an  expedition  against  Tyre  and  slew  many  people.  When  the 
lord  of  the  city  sent  to  know  the  cause  of  this  aggression,  he  was 
charged  with  this  perfidy.^ 

On  September  24,  1269,  Tyre  was  the  scene  of  the  coronation 
of  Hugh  III,  of  Cyprus,  as  King  of  Jerusalem.  The  shadowy 
authority  conferred  upon  him  was  held  for  seven  years.^  After 
his  coronation  he  gave  his  sister  in  marriage  to  John  of  Montfort, 
brother  of  Philip,  and  made  John  lord  of  Tyre  in  Philip's  stead.^ 

Egypt  hastened  the  downfall  of  the  Kingdom  of  Jerusalem  by 
treating  with  the  cities  separately.  Ibn  al-Athir  states  that  in 
the  year  669  (1270-1271)  the  lord  of  Tyre  made  a  treaty  with 
the  sultan  of  Egypt  by  which  the  city  was  to  have  certain  dis- 
tricts of  the  adjacent  territory,  the  sultan  certain  districts,  and 
others  were  to  be  under  their  joint  authority.^ 

In  1270,  if  we  may  believe  the  author  of  the  Chronicle  of  the 
Temple  of  Tyre,  Baibars,  Sultan  of  Egypt,  finding  that  Philip 
of  Montfort,  lord  of  Tyre,  was  the  real  bulwark  of  the  Christian 
forces,  planned  to  have  him  assassinated.  He  hired  two  Assassins 
to  kill  Philip  and  his  nephew,  Julian,  who  was  lord  of  Sayete 
(Sidon).  Julian  was  at  Tyre  when  the  two  Assassins  came. 
While  waiting  for  an  opportunity  to  carry  out  their  plot,  they 
fell  in  with  a  Tyrian  by  the  name  of  Paris,  who  worked  for 
Philip.  Paris  discovered  that  they  were  Assassins.  They 
then  told  him  their  plot  and  bought  his  silence  by  the  promise 
of  a  hundred  bezans.  The  governor  of  Sayete  went  to  Beirut 
and  one  of  the  Assassins  followed.  The  other,  on  Sunday,  met 
Philip  before  a  chapel  and  saluted  him.  Philip  entered  the 
chapel  and  the  Assassin  followed.  In  the  chapel  Philip  was 
attended  only  by  his  young  son  John  and  a  knight  by  the  name 

1  Bedr  al-Din,  667.    Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  II,  p.  236. 

2  Will.  Tyr.,  XXXIV,  12;  Chron.  Temp.  Tyr.,  369;  Archer  and  Kingsford, 
Crusades,  p.  409.     Mills,  Crusades,  p.  244. 

3  Chron.  Temp.  Tyr.,  370. 

*  Bedr  al-Din,  669.    Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  II,  p.  244. 


of  William  of  Pinquegny.  The  Assassin  drew  his  sword  and 
attacked  Philip,  but  William  siezed  him  and  held  him  fast  while 
Philip  rushed  out  and  sounded  an  alarm.  The  Assassin  was 
put  to  death.  The  son  came  safely  to  his  father  and  Philip 
went  to  "the  mother  church  of  Tyre  which  is  called  Holy  Cross," 
and  offered  thanks  to  God  for  deliverance.^ 

Burchard  of  Mt.  Zion  visited  Tyre  in  1280  A.D.  He  saw  the 
waters  of  Ras  al-Ain  irrigating  gardens,  orchards,  vineyards  and 
fields  of  sugar  cane  "which  grows  in  great  abundance  and  from 
which  the  lord  of  Tyre  received  great  revenues."  Six  good- 
sized  mills  were  turned  by  the  overflow  of  waters  from  this 
great  spring  between  it  and  the  sea. 

As  to  the  city  itself,  its  triple  eastern  wall  had  been  strength- 
ened by  the  twelve  towers  "than  which  I  have  never  seen  better 
in  any  part  of  the  world  ....  All  the  world  ought  not  to  be 
able  to  take  the  city  by  fair  means.  The  relics  of  many  martyrs 
of  the  time  of  Diocletian  are  there  whose  number  God  only 
knows.  Origen  lies  buried  there,  his  tomb  built  into  the  wall 
of  the  Church  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre.  I  have  seen  his  monu- 
ment there."  The  same  author  notes  that  the  archbishop's  see 
was  here,  its  suffragan  bishops  being  those  of  Beirut,  Sidon 
and  Acre.^ 

John  of  Montfort  was  succeeded  as  governor  of  Tyre  by 
Amaury.^     And  Amaury  was  succeeded  by  Adan  de  Cafran.^ 

Hugh  of  Cyprus  was  succeeded  as  king  of  Jerusalem  by  Henry 
of  Cyprus,  who  was  crowned  at  Tyre  in  1286.  The  coronation 
occurred  in  the  cathedral  and  was  solemnized  by  Bonacours, 
who  was  Archbishop  of  Tyre  at  that  time.^ 

The  Moslem  victories  of  Baibars  continued  under  Kalaiin. 
Only  meager  help  came  from  the  west.  Finally  the  Egyptian 
armies  began  the  attack  upon  the  city  of  Acre.  Kalaiin  was 
dying  in  Egypt,  but  before  he  closed  his  eyes,  he  swore  his  son 

1  Chron.  Temp,  de  Tyr.,  374. 

2  P.  P.  T.,  XII,  1,  pp.  10-12, 

3  Chron.  Temp.  Tyr.,  477. 
*  Ibid.,  504. 

'  Ibid.,  439. 


Halil  to  complete  his  work.  Halil  did  not  delay  in  setting 
forth.  Upon  arriving  at  Acre  the  siege  was  pushed  forward  with 
all  possible  violence.  Tyre  and  the  other  Christian  cities  of  the 
coast  gave  no  aid  to  Acre,  perhaps  being  restrained  by  jealousy, 
but  more  probably  by  fear  of  the  fury  of  the  enemy.  Acre  fell 
in  1291.  The  Sultan  sent  one  of  his  amirs  with  a  body  of  troops 
to  take  possession  of  Tyre.  Adan  de  Cafran,  the  governor  of 
Tyre,  abandoned  the  city  as  did  all  the  knights  and  rich  people. 
The  poor  people,  men,  women  and  children,  remained  as  they 
had  no  vessels  in  which  to  escape.^  The  city  in  terror  opened  its 
gates  without  resistance.  The  citizens  were  massacred,  dis- 
persed or  sold  into  slavery.  Houses,  factories,  temples,  every- 
thing in  the  city  was  consigned  to  sword,  flame  and  ruin.  Other 
cities  suffered  the  same  fate.^ 

An  Arabic  historian,  after  speaking  of  the  annihilation  of  these 
cities  adds,  "Things,  if  it  please  God,  will  remain  thus  till  the 
Last  Judgment."^ 

1  Chron.  Temp.  Tyr.,  504. 

2  Abu  al-Fida,  and  Dimashki. — Vid.  LeStrange,  Palestine  under  the  Moslems, 
345;  Robson,  Michaud's  Hist,  of  the  Crusades,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  89. 

2  Abu  al-Fida,  690.    Vid.  R.  H.  C.  Or.,  Vol.  I,  p.  164. 



After  the  fall  of  the  Kingdom  of  Jerusalem  and  the  complete 
reestablishment  of  Moslem  power,  Palestine  was  nominally 
under  the  power  of  the  Caliph  of  Egypt,  but  in  reality  it  was 
divided  up  among  the  descendants  of  Saladin  and  his  brothers.^ 
Dimashki,  writing  about  1300  A.D.,  says  that  after  the  rise  of 
the  Turk  power  (meaning  the  house  of  Saladin),  Syria  was 
divided  into  nine  kingdoms.^  The  fourth  of  these  little  kingdoms, 
as  given  by  Dimashki,  had  Safad  as  its  capital,  and  it  was  to 
this  that  Acco,  Tyre  and  Sidon  belonged.^  However,  Tyre 
was  in  almost  complete  ruin.  Abu  al-Fida  writes,  "The  city 
was  laid  in  ruins,  as  it  remains  to  the  present  day  (1321  A.D.)."^ 

Sir  John  Maundeville,  in  his  account  of  his  travels  in  1322, 
writes  of  Tyre  as  follows:  "Here  was  once  a  great  and  good  city 
of  the  Christians,  but  the  Saracens  have  destroyed  it  in  great 
part,  and  they  guard  the  haven  carefully  for  fear  of  the  Chris- 
tians. Men  might  go  more  directly  to  that  haven  without 
touching  at  Cyprus:  but  they  go  gladly  to  Cyprus,  to  rest  them 
in  that  land,  or  to  buy  things  that  they  need  for  their  living:"^ 
sad  words  for  the  city  that  was  once  the  mart  of  the  nations. 

Tyre  was  visited  by  Ibn  Batutah  in  1355.  He  writes:  "Of 
the  ancient  walls  and  port  traces  remain."^  It  is  evident  that 
the  ruined  parts  of  the  wall  that  were  standing  did  not  show 
their  weakness  at  a  distance.  Ludolph  von  Suchen,  writing 
about  1350,  says:  "Near  this  city  (Sidon)  is  another  exceedingly 
fair  city,  well  fenced  with  towers  and  walls,  and  standing  strangely 

1  LeStrange,  Palest,  under  Moslems,  p.  40. 

2  Ibid. 

^  Dimashki,  210-212,  vid.  LeStrange,  Palest,  under  Moslems,  p.  41. 
*  Abu  al-Fida,  243,  vid.  LeStrange,  Palest,  under  Moslems,  p.  345. 
^  MaundevUle,  Travels,  Ch.  IV,  vid.  Wright,  Early  Travels  in  Palestine, 
p.  141. 

^  Ibn  Batutah,  I,  130,  vid.  LeStrange,  Palest,  under  Moslems  345. 



by  itself  on  an  island  in  the  sea.  It  is  named  Tyre,  and  now  it 
is  almost  deserted."^ 

Bertrandon  de  la  Brocquiere  in  his  account  of  his  travels  in 
1432  writes:  "We  saw  Sur,  an  enclosed  town  with  a  good  port 
....  The  city  is  enclosed  on  the  land  side  by  ditches  which 
are  not  deep.  ...  I  only  passed  through.  It  seemed  handsome 
though  not  strong,  any  more  than  Seyde,  both  having  been 
formerly  destroyed,  as  appears  from  their  walls,  which  are  not 
to  be  compared  to  those  of  our  towns."^  At  that  time  there  were 
no  villages  on  the  plain  of  Tyre  though  there  were  several  on  the 
surrounding  mountain-sides.^  The  city  had  not  been  able  to 
regain  any  real  measure  of  life  when  Sanday  visited  the  site. 
He  writes :  "  This  once  famous  Tyre  is  none  other  than  a  heap  of 

Henry  Maundrell  visited  the  site  in  1697.  His  account  is  as 
follows : 

"This  city  (Tyre)  standing  in  the  sea  upon  a  peninsula,  promises  at  a 
distance  something  very  magnificent :  but  when  you  come  to  it,  you  find 
no  similitude  of  that  glory  for  which  it  was  so  renowned  in  ancient  times, 
and  which  the  prophet  Ezekiel  describes.  On  the  north  side  it  has  an  old 
Turkish  ungarrisoned  castle,  besides  which  you  see  nothing  here  but  a 
mere  Babel  of  broken  walls,  pillars,  vaults,  etc.,  there  being  not  so  much 
as  one  unbroken  house  left.  Its  present  inhabitants  are  only  a  few  poor 
wretches,  harboring  themselves  in  vaults,  and  subsisting  chiefly  upon 
fishing.  ...  In  the  midst  of  the  ruins  there  stands  up  one  pile  higher 
than  the  rest,  which  is  the  east  end  of  a  great  church,  probably  of  the 
cathedral  of  Tyre.  .  .  .  There  being  an  old  staircase  in  this  ruin  last 
mentioned,  I  got  up  to  the  top  of  it,  from  whence  I  had  an  entire  prospect 
of  the  island  part  of  Tyre,  the  isthmus,  and  of  the  adjacent  shore.  .  .  . 
The  island  of  Tyre  seems  to  have  been  of  a  circular  figure,  containing  not 
more  than  forty  acres  of  ground.  It  discovers  still  the  foundation  of  a 
wall  which  anciently  encompassed  it  around  at  the  utmost  margin  of  the 
island.    It  makes  with  the  isthmus  two  large  bays,  one  on  the  north  side 

1  Ludolph  von  Suchen,  Descrip.  of  Holy  Land,  vid.  P.  P.  T.,  XII,  2.  John 
Polonius  gives  a  like  description  (c.  1421),  vid.  P.  P.  T.,  VI,  39. 

2  Bert,  de  Bocq.  Travels,  vid.  Wright,  Eariy  Travels  in  Palest.,  pp.  297-298. 
»  Ibid. 

*  Sanday,  Travels:  Relation  of  a  Journey  begun  in  1610,  p.  168.  Peter 
Heylyn,  Cosmographie  (London,  1669),  III,  44,  speaks  in  almost  the  same 


and  the  other  on  the  south.  These  bays  are  in  part  defended  from  the 
ocean,  each  by  a  long  ridge,  resembUng  a  mole,  stretching  directly  out, 
on  both  sides,  from  the  head  of  the  island;  but  these  ridges,  whether  they 
were  walls  or  rocks,  whether  the  work  of  art  or  of  nature,  I  was  too  far 
distant  to  discern. 

"Coming  out  of  these  ruins,  we  saw  the  foundation  of  a  very  strong 
wall,  running  across  the  neck  of  land,  and  serving  as  a  barrier  to  secure 
the  city  on  this  side.  From  this  place  we  were  a  third  of  an  hour  in 
passing  the  sandy  isthmus." 

Three  quarters  of  an  hour  later  the  party  reached  Ras  al-Ain 
which  is  described  as  follows: 

"Sunday,  March  21.  Ras-al-ayn  is  a  place  where  are  the  cisterns 
called  Solomon's;  of  these  cisterns  there  are  three  entire  at  this  day,  one 
almost  a  furlong  and  a  half  from  the  sea,  the  other  two  a  little  farther 
up.  The  former  is  of  an  octagonal  figure,  twenty-two  yards  in  diameter. 
It  is  elevated  above  the  ground  nine  yards  on  the  south  side  and  six  on 
the  north.  Within,  it  is  said  to  be  of  unfathomable  depth,  but  ten  yards 
of  line  confuted  that  opinion.  Its  walls  are  of  no  better  material  than 
gravel  and  small  pebbles;  but  consolidated  with  so  strong  and  tenacious 
a  cement,  that  it  seems  to  be  all  one  entire  vessel  of  rock.  Upon  the 
brink  of  it  you  have  a  walk  round,  eight  feet  broad,  from  which  descending 
by  one  step  on  the  south  side,  and  by  two  on  the  north,  you  have  another 
walk  twenty-one  feet  broad.  All  this  structure  so  broad  at  top,  is  yet 
made  hollow,  so  that  the  water  comes  in  underneath  the  walks,  insomuch 
that  I  could  not,  with  a  long  rod,  reach  the  extremity  of  the  cavity.  The 
whole  vessel  contains  a  vast  body  of  excellent  water,  and  it  is  so  well 
supplied  from  its  fountain  that,  though  there  issues  from  it  a  stream  like 
a  brook,  driving  four  mills  between  this  place  and  the  sea,  yet  it  is  always 
brim  full.  On  the  east  side  of  this  cistern  was  the  ancient  outlet  of  the 
water,  by  an  aqueduct  raised  about  six  yards  from  the  ground  and  con- 
taining a  channel  one  yard  wide:  but  this  is  now  stopped  up  and  dry, 
the  Turks  having  broke  an  outlet  on  the  other  side,  deriving  thence  a 
stream  for  grinding  their  corn.  The  aqueduct,  now  dry,  is  carried  east- 
ward about  one  hundred  and  twenty  paces,  and  then  approaches  the  two 
other  cisterns,  of  which  one  is  twelve,  the  other  twenty  yards  square. 
These  have  each  a  little  channel  by  which  they  anciently  rendered  their 
waters  into  the  aqueduct,  and  so  the  united  streams  of  all  the  three 
cisterns  were  carried  together  to  Tyre.  You  may  trace  out  the  aqueduct 
all  along  by  the  remaining  fragments  of  it.  It  goes  about  one  hour  north- 
ward, and  then,  turning  west  at  a  small  mount,  where  anciently  stood  a 
fort,  but  now  a  mosque,  it  proceeds  over  the  isthmus  into  the  city.  As  we 
passed  by  the  aqueduct  we  observed  in  several  places,  on  its  sides  and 


under  its  arches,  rugged  heaps  of  matter  resembling  rock.  .  .  ,  These  were 
composed  of  innumerable  tubes  of  stone,  of  different  sizes,  cleaving  to 
one  another  like  icicles."* 

Thomas  Shaw  upon  visiting  the  place  early  in  the  eighteenth 
century  adds  lit'tle  to  the  picture  of  desolation  except  to  say  that 
the  port  once  surrounded  by  walls  was  so  choked  up  with  sand 
and  rubbish  that  the  boats  of  those  poor  fishermen,  "  who  now 
and  then  visit  this  once  renowned  emporium,"  could  be  admitted 
only  with  great  difficulty.^ 

Richard  Pococke  a  very  little  later  visited  the  ruined  city.^ 
After  describing  the  remains  of  the  walls  and  towers,  he  writes, 
"  I  went  to  the  home  of  a  Maronite  who  was  agent  for  the  French 
here,  it  being  a  place  where  they  export  much  corn."  He  found 
but  two  or  three  Christians  here,  and  few  others  except  some 
soldiers  in  a  mean  castle  near  the  port.  There  was  a  custom 
house  at  the  port. 

Hasslequist  in  1751  found,  as  it  appears,  but  ten  inhabitants 
in  the  place.*  A  feeble  effort  to  rehabilitate  Tyre  was  made  by 
some  of  the  Mutawalis.^  Under  Zahir,  commander  of  Acre, 
an  army  of  ten  thousand  of  them  took  possession  of  the  site  of 
Tyre  which  they  made  their  maritime  mart.  In  1771  they 
served  against  the  Ottomans,  and  during  their  absence  the 
Druses  sacked  their  territory.^  In  1766  they  had  constructed  a 
wall  twenty  feet  high  across  the  isthmus  but  it  was  in  ruins  less 
than  twenty  years  later.'' 

1  Henry  Maundrell,  A  Journey  from  Aleppo  to  Jerusalem  at  Easter,  A.D. 
1697,  edition  of  R.  Edwards,  London,  1810,  p.  64  ff.  Wright,  Early  Travels 
in  Palest.,  p.  423  ff. 

2  Thomas  Shaw,  Travels  (Oxford,  1738),  p.  331. 

^  Richard  Pococke,  Description  of  the  East  (London,  1745),  p.  81  ff. 

*  Renan,  Mis.  de  Phen.,  IV,  1. 

*  The  Mutawalis  or  Metawileh  (singular,  Mutawali  or  Metawali)  are  an 
exclusive  group  of  Shi^te  Muhammedans  dwelling  in  Lebanon  and  Coelo- 
Syria.  Their  origin  is  uncertain.  They  now  number  fifty  or  sixty  thousand. 
Vid.  I.  Goldzieher,  Vorlesungen  iiber  Islam  (Heidelberg,  1910),  p.  244  fif.; 
F.  J.  Bliss,  The  Religions  of  Modem  Syria  and  Palestine  (New  York,  1912), 
pp.  295-296;  A.  Socin  and  D.  G.  Hogarth,  Enc.  Brit.,  11th  ed.,  article  on 

9  Volney,  Voyage  en  Syrie  (Paris,  1787),  p.  80  ff. 
'  Ibid.,  193. 


When  Volney  visited  the  place  the  village  did  not  cover  one 
third  of  the  island.  The  port  was  so  filled  up  that  children 
could  wade  across  from  one  ruined  tower  to  the  other.  The  whole 
population  consisted  of  fifty  or  sixty  poor  families  who  lived 
obscurely  by  gardening  and  by  fishing.  The  houses  were 
wretched  huts  ready  to  tumble  down.  Ahmad  al-Jazzar,  of 
the  Turkish  army,  was  then  Pasha  of  Sidon;  he  had  spoiled  the 
ruins  of  Tyre  to  adorn  his  mosque  at  Acco.  The  two  great 
columns  of  red  granite  at  the  ruins  of  the  Crusader's  church 
his  men  had  not  been  able  to  remove.^ 

Before  the  gate  a  hundred  paces  was  a  tower  in  which  was  a 
fountain  to  which  the  women  of  the  town  came  for  water.  It 
was  five  or  six  feet  deep  and  the  water  was  excellent.  For  some 
reason  it  was  troubled  in  September  and  for  a  few  days  the 
water  assumed  a  reddish  color.  At  that  time  the  inhabitants 
were  accustomed  to  hold  a  great  feast,  coming  in  crowds  to  the 
fountain.  They  finally  used  to  bring  a  little  sea  water  which, 
they  said,  had  the  power  to  clarify  the  water  of  the  spring.^ 
On  Tel  al-Ma'shuk,  a  quarter  of  an  hour  from  the  town,  stood 
the  ruins  of  a  building  with  a  remarkable  white  roof.^ 

When  Browne  visited  the  site  in  1797  he  found  that  Tyre  con- 
sisted of  a  few  miserable  huts  inhabited  by  fishermen,  and  the 
port  sadly  in  need  of  being  restored.'* 

When  Napoleon  with  his  army  was  besieging  Acco  in  1799,  he 
sent  General  Vial,  on  April  3d,  to  Tyre.  The  territory  to  the 
north  was  still  held  by  the  Mutawali  sheikhs.  These  declared 
in  favor  of  the  French,  and  a  corps  of  their  soldiers  preceded  the 
French  to  Tyre.  The  few  poor  inhabitants  were  fleeing  with 
their  possessions,  but  General  Vial  assured  them  of  their  safety. 
Sheikh  Nasir,  the  Mutawali  chief,  received  General  Vial  and 
conducted  him  to  his  lodging  which  was  on  the  harbor  and  which 
had  been  built,  he  said,  by  his  grandfather.     Sheikh  Nasir  said, 

1  Volney,  Voyage  en  Syrie,  p.  193. 

2  Ibid.,  194. 

3  Ibid.,  194. 

^  G.  W.  Browne,  Travels  in  Africa,  Egypt  and  Syria,  1792-1798  (London, 
1799),  p.  271. 


"I  wish  to  make  Tyre  stronger  than  Acco;  and  my  design  is  to 
encourage  merchants  and  commerce."^ 

The  coast  cities  were  under  direct  Turkish  rule,  and  from  the 
time  of  Al-Jazzar,  the  Christians  and  Jews  suffered  many  disabih- 
ties.  They  were  not  permitted  to  ride  donkeys;  they  were  re- 
quired to  dress  in  black;  they  must  not  build  better  houses  than 
their  Mohammedan  neighbors;  their  dead  must  not  be  carried 
before  the  door  of  a  mosque,^ 

In  1831  Syria  passed  under  the  rule  of  Mohammed  Ali,  viceroy 
of  Egypt,  and  Ibrahim  Pasha  became  governor.  Liberal  and 
tolerant  laws  were  enacted  and  commerce  began  to  increase  and 
the  country  to  prosper.^  The  modern  serai  at  Tyre  was  built 
by  him.^  If  he  had  continued  in  power.  Tyre  might  have  awak- 
ened in  time  to  contend  for  modern  supremacy  on  the  Syrian 
coast.  But  in  1840  the  allied  fleets  of  England,  Austria  and 
Turkey  bombarded  the  Syrian  ports,  including  Tyre,  and  drove 
Ibrahim  Pasha  back  to  Egypt.^ 

The  city  suffered  greatly  from  an  earthquake  in  1837.  Of 
this  earthquake  W.  M.  Thompson  writes  as  follows : 

"We  rode  into  the  latter  town  (Tyre)  at  midnight  over  prostrate  walls, 
and  found  some  of  the  streets  so  choked  up  with  fallen  houses  that  we 
could  not  pass  through  them.  I  retain  a  vivid  recollection  of  that  dismal 
night.  The  people  were  living  in  boats  drawn  up  on  the  shore,  and  in 
tents  near  them,  while  half  suspended  shutters  and  doors  were  creaking 
and  banging,  and  the  wind  which  had  risen  to  a  cold  furious  gale,  howled 
through  the  shattered  walls  and  broken  arches  of  ruined  Tyre."^ 

A  lofty  arch  and  some  of  the  finer  architecture  of  the  cathedral 
ruins  fell  at  that  time.^     Shortly  after  this  (1839)  the  population 

*  A.  A.  Paton,  History  of  the  Egyptian  Revolution,  I,  p.  271. 

2  Henry  H.  Jessup,  Fifty-three  years  in  Syria  (N.  Y.,  1910),  I,  p.  28. 
» Ibid. 

*  Benzinger,  Baedeker's  Palest,  and  Syria,  p.  283. 

^H.  H.  Jessup,  Fifty-three  Years  in  Syria,  Vol.  I,  p.  40  ff.;  Verney  and 
Dambmann,  Les  Puissances  Etrangeres  dans  le  Levant  (Paris,  1900),  p.  71. 

^  Thompson,  The  Land  and  the  Book,  III,  570.  For  other  earthquakes  in 
Palestine  see  Ex.,  19,  18;  I  Sam.,  14,  15;  I  Kings,  19,  11;  Ps.  114,  4-7;  Isa., 
29,  1-6;  Amos,  1,  1;  Zech.,  14,  5;  Mt.,  27,  50-52;  Joseph,  Ant.,  15,  5,  2, 
cf.  Wars  of  the  Jews,  1,  19,  3;  LeStrange,  Pal.  under  Moslems,  passim; 
Record  of  Crusades,  Ch.  IX  above. 

'  D.  Roberts,  The  Holy  Land  (Lond.,  1843),  Vol.  II,  p.  20. 


cf  the  town  was  3000  people,  of  whom  somewhat  more  than  half 
were  Mohammedans.  There  were  but  few  Jews.  The  harbor 
was  choked  up  and  commerce  amounted  to  nothing.  There 
was  a  Greek  Catholic  Bishop  of  Tyre.  The  Roman  Catholic 
patriarchate  which  was  destroyed  in  1291  was  not  restored  until 

From  the  time  that  Ibrahim  Pasha  was  driven  back  into 
Egypt  and  the  country  given  back  to  the  Turks,  religious  ani- 
mosities continued  to  vex  the  country  to  such  an  extent  that  a 
brief  civil  war  resulted  in  1860.  In  this  struggle  Tyre  did  not 
feel  the  force  of  suffering  except  as  Christians  from  the  interior 
fled  thither  in  order  to  escape  to  Beirut.^ 

Tyre  shared  but  meagerly  in  the  general  prosperity  of  the  last 
century.  In  1880  her  population  was  5000  and  in  1900  it  was 
but  6000.3 

At  the  present  time  Tyre  has  a  population  of  about  six  thousand 
five  hundred  people,  of  whom  approximately  one  half  are  Moslems ; 
the  rest  are  Christians  and  Jews.^  It  is  the  seat  of  a  Kadi  and  a 
Greek  Archbishop.  Strangers  find  lodgings  at  a  Latin  mon- 
astery.^ The  Moslems  have  primary  and  secondary  schools  for 
boys.  The  Franciscans  and  Sisters  of  St.  Joseph  have  convents 
and  schools;  the  United  and  the  Orthodox  Greeks  also  have 
schools.  The  British  Syrian  Mission  has  a  boy's  school,  a  girl's 
school,  a  school  for  the  blind  and  Sunday  schools.^  The  Mar- 
onites,  affiliated  with  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  have  an 
archbishop,^  and  the  United  Greek  Church^  and  the  Orthodox 
Greek  Church  each  have  a  bishop  here.^  The  town  occupies 
about  half  the  former  island  and  lays  around  the  harbor  to  the 

1  Vemey  and  Dambmann,  p.  23. 

2  Morris  H.  Jessup,  Fifty-three  Years  in  Syria,  I,  p.  181. 

3  Verney  and  Dambmann,  p.  364. 

^  Benzinger,  Baedeker's  Palestine  and  Syria  (1912),  p.  272. 

=  Ibid. 

6  Ibid. 

^  Verney  and  Dambmann,  pp.  23-25. 

8  Affiliated  with  Rome. 



north.  The  houses  are  small,  the  streets  are  narrow,  crooked 
and  filthy.^  The  area  of  the  island  is  about  142  acres  being 
almost  as  extensive  as  in  ancient  times.^  The  western  and  south- 
ern half  of  the  island,  except  the  Moslem  cemetery,  is  given  up 
to  cultivation  and  pasturage. 

The  cathedral  ruins  are  at  the  southeast  corner  of  the  modern 
wall  of  Tyre.  Only  the  eastern  portion  with  the  three  apses 
remains.  The  northern  one  of  these  is  most  perfect.  The 
masonry  is  of  small  stones  fixed  in  strong  cement.  The  inside 
dimensions  of  the  cathedral  were  214  feet  by  82  feet.  The 
diameter  of  the  apse  was  36  feet.  The  transepts  project  15 
feet.  In  the  interior  are  two  magnificent  monolithic  columns  of 
red  granite  now  prostrate;  they  are  27  feet  in  length.  The  rest 
of  the  interior  decorations  appear  to  have  been  of  white  marble.^ 
While  this  building  was  erected  by  the  Crusaders,  it  probably 
occupies  the  site  of  the  cathedral  erected  by  Paulinus  and 
dedicated  by  Eusebius  in  323  A.D.^  Extensive  excavations  in 
the  temple  ruins  were  made  in  1874  at  the  expense  of  the  German 
government  in  an  effort  to  find  the  tomb  of  Emperor  Frederick 
Barbarossa.  The  futile  effort  brought  to  light  little  that  was 
of  value.^ 

The  course  of  an  old  town  wall  is  traceable  from  the  former 
southeast  end  of  the  island  to  a  cliff  in  the  sea  to  the  west- 
southwest.^  The  fortification  of  the  Crusaders  followed  the 
south  bank  of  the  island;  among  their  remains  is  the  so-called 
Algerian  Tower  now  standing  in  a  garden.^  Along  the  west  side 
one  can  follow  the  ruins  of  medieval  fortifications,  of  which 
fragments  of  columns  and  other  remains  are  visible  under  water.' 

1  Benzinger,  Baedeker's  Palestine  and  Syria,  p.  273;  Renan,  Mis.  de  Phen., 
553.     Pietschmann,  Gesch.  der  Phon.,  68. 

2  Thompson,  The  Land  and  the  Book,  III,  616;  Benzinger,  Baedeker's 
Pal.  and  Syr.,  272;  Condor,  Survey  of  Western  Palest.  (1881),  I,  p.  75;  El- 
Mukattem  (H.  Crosby),  The  Lands  of  the  Moslem  (New  York,  1851),  326. 

*  Thompson,  The  Land  and  the  Book,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  616. 

*  Vid.  Sepp,  Meerfahrt  nach  Tyrus  (Leipzig,  1879),  p.  249  ff. 
6  Thompson,  The  Land  and  The  Book,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  616. 

« Ibid. 
'  Ibid. 


The  Egyptian  harbor  is  entirely  silted  up/  and  the  Sidonian  is 
so  choked  up  that  only  light  coasting  vessels  can  enter.^ 

There  still  exists  one  solitary  specimen  of  Tyre's  great  sea 
wall  that  no  enemy  could  overthrow.  At  the  extreme  northern 
end  of  the  island  a  stone  17  feet  long  and  63^2  feet  wide  rests 
where  it  probably  was  placed  by  the  Tyrians  ages  ago.^ 

The  number  of  granite  columns  that  lie  in  the  sea  is  sur- 
prising. The  east  wall  of  the  inner  harbor  is  founded  on  them: 
they  lie  strewn  beneath  the  sea  on  every  side.  Dr.  W.  M. 
Thompson  writes,  "I  have  repeatedly  rowed  around  the  island 
when  the  water  was  calm  to  look  at  them,  and  always  with 

East  of  the  town  there  is  a  well  that  supplies  the  people  with 
water.  The  ancient  water  supply  was  derived  chiefly  from 
reservoirs  at  Tel  al-Ma'shuk  about  a  mile  and  a  half  east  of  the 
present  city.  At  the  foot  of  the  rock  to  the  south-southeast  of 
the  Tel  are  the  remains  of  large  reservoirs.  Water  was  con- 
ducted to  this  place  from  Ras  al-Ain  and  elsewhere,  and  then 
conducted  to  the  city.  The  conduits  below  ground  are  less 
ancient  than  those  above  ground.^ 

The  slopes  of  the  hill  al-Ma'shuk  are  covered  with  ancient 
ruins,  sarcophagi,  and  oil  presses.  At  the  back  of  the  hill  lies  a 
small  necropolis,  but  the  chief  burial  place  of  Tyre  extends  over 
the  whole  chain  of  hills  to  the  east.® 

The  springs  of  Ras  al-Ain  are  just  as  they  have  been  for 

The  commerce  of  the  modern  town  is  very  small;  the  commer- 
cial city  of  the  Syrian  coast  is  Beirut.  The  rich  trade  of 
the  orient  via  Damascus  no  longer  comes  by  caravan  to  Tyre. 

1  Thompson,  The  Land  and  The  Book,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  616. 

2  Movers,  II,  217-218;  Renan,  Mis.  de  Phen.,  565;  Pietschmann,  65-66. 

3  Thompson,  The  Land  and  the  Book,  III,  617. 
*  Ibid. 

5  Benzinger,  Baed.  Pal.  and  Syr.,  p.  273. 

«Ibid.:  Renan,  Mis.  de  Ph6n.,  580-582,  587-592;  Masp6ro,  Struggle  of 
Nations,  187;  Loret,  La  Sjrie  d'aujourd'hui,  138-140. 

^  Vid.  Henry  Maundrell's  description  on  p.  125  above;  Condor,  Survey 
of  Western  Palest.,  I,  74;  Benzinger,  Baed.  Pal.  and  Syr.,  p.  271. 


The  modern  steam  railway  has  changed  all  that,  and  the  railway 
runs  from  Damascus  not  to  Tyre,  but  to  Beirut.  The  marine 
trade  routes  have  shifted  so  that  they  can  never  again  be  con- 
trolled from  Tyre.  She  carries  on  a  small  trade  with  Egypt 
and  Beirut  in  tobacco,  charcoal  and  wood  from  the  neigh- 
boring territory,  and  in  wheat,  straw  and  millstones  from  the 
Hauran.^  A  sorry  shadow  of  the  days  when  Tyre  was  the  mart 
of  the  nation  and  the  mistress  of  the  seas. 

^  Thompson,  The  Land  and  Book,  III,  628;  Vemey  and  Dambmann,  p.  364. 



In  the  days  of  her  strength  Tyre's  chief  glory  was  in  her 
colonies.^  The  date  at  which  she  began  the  estabhshing  of  these 
colonies  and  commercial  settlements  cannot  be  given  definitely. 
The  earhest  Phoenician  settlements  along  the  coast  of  the 
Mediterranean  were  probably  not  colonies,  but  a  part  of  the 
westward  Semitic  movement  which  brought  the  Phoenicians 
themselves  to  the  coast  of  Canaan.^ 

The  Tyrians  were  said  to  have  had  a  settlement  in  the  city  of 
Memphis,^  whence  they  exported  the  wares  of  Egypt  .^  They 
worshipped  their  own  gods  and  had  their  own  temple  which 
Herodotus  believed  to  have  been  built  about  the  time  of  the 
Trojan  war. 

Early  commercial  settlements  were  made  on  the  Island  of 
Cyprus  (Kittim^  of  Genesis  X).  Its  nearness  and  its  variety 
of  resources,  among  which  was  copper  which  has  its  name  from 
the  name  of  the  island,  would  make  it  attractive  at  once  to  the 
commercial  cities  of  Phoenicia,  and  doubtless  it  was  one  of  the 
places  early  visited  when  the  Phoenicians  first  settled  on  the 
Mediterranean  and  devoted  themselves  to  commerce.®  The 
dates  at  which  the  colonies  were  founded  in  Cyprus,  and  the 
cities  from  which  the  colonists  came  are  not  known;  but  Tyre's 
influence  was  sufficiently  great  to  enable  her  to  claim  sovereignty 
over  the  island,  which  she  was  holding  at  the  close  of  the  eighth 

1  Strabo,  XVI,  2,  23. 

^Eiselen,  Sidon,  p.  110;  Winckler,  Altorientalische  Forschungen,  V,  p. 
421  flf. 

3  Herodotus,  II,  112. 
*  Ibid.,  I,  1. 

^  Josephus,  Antiquities,  I,  6,  1. 
^  Herodotus,  I,  1. 

'  Menander,  as  quoted  by  Josephus,  Antiquities,  IX,  14,  2. 



There  are  apparent  traces  of  Phoenician  influences  in  Rhodes, 
Crete,  along  the  coast  of  Asia  Minor,  and  in  the  islands  off  the  coast 
of  Thrace,^  The  Phoenicians  worked  the  gold  mines  of  Thasos 
with  such  vigor  that  they  turned  a  mountain  into  heaps.^  They 
visited  and  perhaps  had  trading  settlements  in  the  islands  of 
the  Aegean.^  They  settled  at  Athens  and  Thebes.^  They  seem 
to  have  had  settlements  in  Sicily,  Sardinia,  and  Corsica.^  Some 
of  these  traces  may  be  referred  to  the  earlier  westward  movements 
of  the  Semites  rather  than  to  definite  colonization  plans  in- 
augurated by  the  cities  of  Phoenicia.  The  settlements  in  Spain 
made  by  the  Tyrians,^  however,  seem  to  have  been  colonies  in  a 
commercial  if  not  a  political  sense. 

The  greatest  of  the  Tyrian  settlements  beyond  the  Pillars  of 
Hercules  was  Gadeira,  Gades,  modern  Cadiz.  Its  location  re- 
sembled the  site  of  the  mother  city :  it  was  situated  on  an  island 
separated  from  the  mainland  by  a  strait.  Access  to  the  mainland 
for  trade  was  easy,  and  at  the  same  time  the  settlement  on  the 
island  could  be  defended  readily.  The  city  stood,  like  modern 
Cadiz,  on  the  extreme  northwestern  part  of  the  island.  That 
the  city  was  well  protected  is  indicated  by  the  name,  Gadeira, 
*11X  fortress.  We  may  safely  date  the  founding  of  this  settle- 
ment at  about  1100  B.C. ^  The  Tyrians  made  a  number  of  other 
settlements  in  Spain^  and,  if  we  may  accept  the  statement  of 
Strabo,  that  at  Onoba  antedated  the  founding  of  Gadeira. 

Closely  connected  with  the  settlement  at  Gadeira  in  date 
was  that  at  Utica  in  Africa.  Again  a  site  easy  for  defense  was 
chosen.    The  settlement  was  located  on  a  promontory  of  land 

1  Kenrick,  Phoenicia,  p.  94. 

2  Herodotus,  VI,  47. 

^  Thucydides,  Peloponnesian  War,  I,  8. 
*  Herodotus,  V,  57-59. 

5  Diodorus,  V,  12. 

6  Ibid.,  V,  35. 

^  Aristotle:  De  Mirabil.  Auscult.,  134,  says:  "Iti^/ct;  &s  dvayiypairTac  iv  rats 
^oiviKiKois  Iffroplaii  irpdrepov  iKrladri  avrijs  riji  Kapx7;56vos  ^recri  diaKOffiois  dydo-fiKovra 
?7rTa."  .  .  .  But  Veil.  Paterc.  I,  2,  says  that  the  Tyrians  founded  Utica  a 
few  years  after  they  had  founded  Gadeira.  Vid.  also  Strabo,  I,  3,  2;  XVII, 
3;  Curtius,  IV,  4;  Justin,  XVIII,  4;  Pliny,  XVI,  216. 

8  Strabo,  III,  151,  156  et  seq.,  169  et  seq. 


that  extended  out  into  the  Gulf  of  Tunis,  at  a  distance  of  seven- 
teen miles  from  the  site  of  Carthage.  The  River  Bagradas 
flowed  by  it  into  the  sea  on  the  eastern  side.  It  had  a  good 
harbor,  and  easy  access  to  the  very  fertile  adjacent  regions.'^ 
We  have  seen  that  it  was  founded  two  hundred  and  eighty  seven 
years  before  Carthage.^  As  the  date  for  the  founding  of  Carthage 
is  about  820  B.C.,  Utica  must  have  been  founded  about  1100 
B.C.  When  Pliny  wrote  his  Natural  History,  in  the  year  77  or 
78  A.D.,  he  reckoned  the  founding  of  Utica  to  have  occurred 
1078  years  previously.^ 

Ancient  historians  credit  Tyre  with  having  founded  Sabarth 
in  Africa,^  Lesser  Leptis,  and  Hadrumentum.^  We  are  even 
told  that  the  Tyrians  had  three  hundred  cities  on  the  Mauritanian 
coast  beyond  the  pillars  of  Hercules;^  and  while  without  doubt 
the  statement  is  a  gross  exaggeration,  it  probably  had  its  origin 
in  unusual  commercial  activity  in  that  region. 

Most  famous  of  all  the  colonies  of  Tyre  was  Carthage.  There 
is  an  interesting  question  as  to  the  date  of  the  founding  of  this 
city.  In  a  passage  of  the  Cicilian,  Philistus,  preserved  by  Euse- 
bius^  it  is  said  that  Carthage  was  founded  by  Zorus  and  Karche- 
don  thirty  years  before  the  Trojan  war.  We  have  seen^  that,  as 
Zorus,  *lli,  is  Tyre,  Karchedon  may  represent  another  city 
having  aided  in  the  founding,  possibly  Karchedon  in  Cyprus. 
It  is  clear  that  Virgil  reckons  the  founding  of  Carthage  to  have 
preceded  the  Trojan  war.^  Conditions  at  Tyre  so  far  as  we 
know  them  were  not  favorable  for  great  commercial  develop- 
ment at  quite  so  early  a  date:  but  there  is  no  reason  why  we 
may  not  believe  that  a  settlement  was  made  at  Carthage  in  the 
same  period  as  that  at  Gades  and  Utica. 

^  Rawlinson,  Phoenicia,  63-64;  Kenrick,  Phoenicia,  145. 
^  Vid.  p.  134,  note  7  above. 
3  Pliny,  XVI,  216. 
*  Silius  ItaUcus,   III,  256. 
6  PUny,  V,  76. 
6  Strabo,  XVII,  826. 
^  Vid.  p.  31  above. 
8  Page  29  et  seq.  above. 

8  Virgil,  Aeneid,  I,  335  ff.,  shows  the  city  established  when  the  refugees 
from  Troy  came. 


The  promontory,  modern  Capo  Cartagine,  stood  five  hundred 
feet  above  the  sea,  and  afforded  an  excellent  look-out.  The  site 
was  favorable  for  trade  and  for  defense.  The  bay  afforded 
ample  shelter  for  shipping.^ 

The  colony  first  settled  on  the  promontory.  Like  other 
Tyrian  colonies,  it  was  fortified,  and  so  had  its  name,  HIliD, 
but  strangers  confused  the  name  with  the  Greek  Bvpa-a,  a  hide, 
and  this  confusion  gave  rise  to  the  legend  that  Dido  bargained 
for  so  much  ground  as  could  be  compassed  by  an  ox-hide! — and 
then  had  the  hide  cut  into  strips  sufficiently  narrow  to  enable 
her  to  compass  the  hill,  which  in  this  way  got  its  name.^  But 
the  prosperity  and  prominence  of  the  city  must  be  reckoned  from 
the  date  of  the  coming  of  Elissa^  and  her  followers.^  It  was  then 
that  the  city  itself  was  built  and  called  nSi^TH  H'^pj "  New  City." 

Because  of  her  favorable  location  for  trade  by  land  and  by 
sea,  and  because  of  the  unusual  ability  and  enterprise  of  her 
citizens,  Carthage  quickly  came  to  wealth  and  great  com- 
mercial importance.  Her  relation  to  the  mother  city  was  most 
cordial.  She  sent  her  annual  tribute  to  the  temple  of  Melkart 
long  after  Tyre's  ability  to  collect  it  by  force  was  gone.^  When 
Cambyses,  after  the  conquest  of  Egypt,  wanted  to  proceed 
against  Carthage,  the  Tyrian  seamen  refused  to  make  war 
against  their  kinsmen,  the  Carthaginians.®  During  Alexander's 
siege  of  Tyre,  an  embassage  from  Carthage  came  to  give  as- 
sistance, and  offered  refuge  for  all  who  wished  to  flee  to  their 

The  era  of  Tyre's  greatest  activity  in  locating  colonies  and 
commercial  settlements  synchronizes  with  the  entrance  of  the 
Hebrews  into  Palestine,  and  their  efforts  to  possess  the  land. 
That  movement  was  not  complete  until  the  time  of  David.^ 
The  pressure  of  the  Hebrews  crowding  in  may  have  driven  the 
Canaanites  to  seek  new  homes  for  themselves  in  the  far  west, 

1  Virgil,  Aeneid,  I,  160  ff.  ^  Diodorus,  XX,  14. 

2  Ibid.,  I,  365  ff.  6  Vid.  page  50  above. 

^  Jlha,  feminine  of  fsx.  '  Vid.  pages  56,  62  above. 

*  Vid.  page  29  et  seq.  above.  » II  Samuel,  V,  8. 


and  we  may  be  sure  that  the  Tyrians  would  try  to  locate  them 
where  they  would  be  of  the  greatest  commercial  advantage.^ 

At  the  beginning  of  the  eighth  century  Tyre's  power  in  her 
colonies  began  to  wane.  The  Assyrians  gained  control  on  the 
mainland  and  in  Cyprus.  The  colonies  turned  to  Carthage  as 
natural  protector.^    Tyre's  colonization  era  was  over. 

Dr.  Jacob  Krall  says,  "Not  only  did  the  colonies  near  and 
beyond  the  Gates  of  Hercules  belong  to  Tyre;  but  the  whole 
colonization  movement  of  the  Phoenicians  which  has  given  to 
this  people  their  place  in  universal  history  is  in  reality  the  work 
of  Tyre."3 

The  commercial  ventures  of  the  Tyrians  were  not  limited  to 
their  own  colonies  or  commercial  settlements.  According  to 
Herodotus  the  Phoenicians,  having  settled  on  the  Mediterranean 
coast,  immediately  undertook  distant  voyages;  and  carrying 
cargoes  both  of  Egyptian  and  Assyrian  goods,  visited  among 
other  places,  Argos.^  What  part  Tyre  had  in  these  voyages 
we  do  not  know.  It  is  clear  that  in  the  early  period  the  Phoe- 
nicians were  not  the  sole  masters  of  the  seas.  Recent  discoveries 
in  Crete^  have  brought  to  light  a  Minoan  sea  power  of  remote 
antiquity.  When  the  Minoan  sea  power  was  broken  up  in  the 
twelfth  century  B.C.,^  Phoenician  traders  became  the  undisputed 
commercial  mediators  of  the  nations. 

What  part  Tyrians  had  among  the  Phoenician  traders  referred 
to  by  Homer^  is  not  known,  as  he  does  not  mention  Tyre. 

1  The  tradition  of  such  an  origin  for  the  Tyrian  colonists  may  be  preserved 
in  the  Phoenician  inscription  which  Procopius  (De  Bell.  Vandal.,  II,  10) 
mentions  as  being  near  the  city  of  Tingis  in  Mauritania,  "We  are  those  who 
fled  before  the  face  of  Joshua  the  robber,  the  son  of  Nun."  Vid.  also  Suidas 
(s.  V.  X.T]vadv). 

The  westward  movement  of  population  at  this  time  may  have  been  partially 
due  to  the  military  activity  of  Assyria  under  Tiglath  Pileser  I  who  came  as 
far  west  as  Canaan  in  1120  B.C. 

2  Justin,  XLIV,  5. 

^  Tyrus  und  Sidon,  p.  45.  *  Herodotus,  I,  1. 

^  Vid.  Burrows,  Discoveries  in  Crete  (1907);  James  Blakie,  The  Sea  Kings 
of  Crete  (London,  1910). 

6  Vid.  Herodotus,  I,  171;  Thucydides  T,  4,  8. 

7  lUad,  VI,  289  ff.;  XXIII,  740  ff.;  Odyssey,  XIII,  272;  XIV,  288;  XV,  414, 
473  et.  al. 


We  have  seen  that  Hiram's  seamen  in  charge  of  the  fleet  of 
King  Solomon,  sailed  to  distant  ports  in  the  eastern  seas,  making 
three-year  trading  cruises;  that  their  imports  were  gold,  silver, 
precious  wood,  jems,  ivory,  apes,  and  peacocks.^  That  these 
voyages  were  vastly  profitable  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  Solo- 
mon's share  in  a  voyage  from  Ophir  was  four  hundred  and 
twenty  talents  of  gold.^ 

The  profits  of  Tyre's  trade  in  the  west  seem  to  have  been 
enormous.  It  is  recorded  that  even  the  anchors  of  the  ships 
returning  from  Spain  were  made  of  silver.^  The  Tyrian  mer- 
chants are  represented  as  "princes  of  the  sea"  upon  their  thrones, 
with  robes  and  broidered  garments.*  Her  merchants  were 
princes,  her  traffickers  were  the  honorable  of  the  earth. ^ 

The  most  important  of  the  ancient  documents  regarding  the 
commerce  of  Tyre  is  the  twenty-seventh  chapter  of  the  Book 
of  Ezekiel.  The  first  eleven  verses  of  the  chapter  represent 
Tyre  as  a  splendid  ship  moored  in  the  sea,  a  fitting  figure  for  the 
beautiful  city  as  it  then  appeared.  The  goodly  ship,  merchant 
of  the  people  of  many  isles,  is  conscious  that  it  is  of  perfect 
beauty.  Her  planks  are  of  the  fir  trees  of  Senir.^  Her  mast  is 
of  the  cedars  of  Lebanon.  Of  the  oaks  of  Bashan  were  her  oars. 
Her  benches  were  of  ivory  inlaid  in  boxwood^  from  the  isles  of 
Kittim.^  Of  fine  linen  with  broidered  work  from  Egypt  was 
her  sail.  Blue  and  purple  from  the  isles  of  Elishah  was  her 
awning.  The  inhabitants  of  Sidon  and  Arvad  were  her  rowers, 
while  her  own  wise  men  were  her  pilots.  The  wise  men  of 
Gebal  were  her  calkers.  All  the  ships  of  the  sea  with  their 
mariners  were  but  attendants  to  handle  the  merchandise  of  this 

1  Vid.  pages  20  ff.  above. 
2 1  Kings,  IX,  28. 

2  Diodorus,  V,  35. 

*  Ezekiel,  XXVI,  16. 
6  Isaiah,  XXIII,  8. 

8  Vid.  I  Kings,  V,  8.  Senir  was  the  Amorite  name  of  Hermon  (see  A.  B. 
Davidson,  Cambridge  Bible  for  Schools  and  Colleges,  Ezekiel,  p.  191). 

^  For  Dnt^N  na  read  nntj'snn. 

»Kittim  is  Cyprus;  but  the  "isles  of  Kittim"  is  indefinite,  referring  to 
islands  and  coasts  beyond  Cyprus.     Dan.  XI,  30;  I  Mace,  I,  1;  VIII,  5. 


mighty  vessel,  Tyre.  The  great  ship  is  attended  by  her  warriors 
from  Persia^  and  Lud  and  Put  who  adorned  her  with  their  shields. 
The  men  of  Arvad  were  upon  her  walls,  and  the  Gammadim^ 
were  in  her  towers.  These  perfected  her  beauty  by  adorning 
her  walls  with  their  shields.  Having  described  Tyre  as  a  great 
ship,  the  prophet  proceeds  to  catalogue  her  commercial  dealings 
with  the  whole  known  world  in  verses  twelve  to  twenty-five : 

"Tarshish  was  thy  merchant  by  reason  of  the  multitude  of 
all  kinds  of  riches;  with  silver,  iron,  tin  and  lead,  they  traded 
for  thy  wares."  The  richest  silver  mines  in  the  world  were  in 
the  mountains  of  Andalusia.^  Iron  was  found  in  great  abun- 
dance.^ Tin  was  found  in  Spain,  as  many  ancient  authorities 
indicate,^  but  far  richer  deposits  existed  in  the  Cassiterides  (Tin 
Islands),  i.  e.,  Scilly  Islands,  and  in  Cornwall.  Supplies  from 
these  sources  reached  the  Mediterranean  by  way  of  Gades.^ 

"  Javan,  Tubal  and  Meshech  were  thy  traffickers :  they  traded 
in  the  persons  of  men  and  vessels  of  brass  in  thy  market." 
These  countries  are  usually  grouped  together.^  The  first  is  the 
lonians,  and  the  other  two  have  usually  been  identified  with  the 
Tibareni  and  Moschi  on  the  Black  Sea.^  That  Javan  traded  in 
slaves  is  indicated  by  Joel  III:  6,  and  Amos  I:  9. 

"They  of  the  house  of  Togarmath  traded  for  thy  wares  with 
horses  and  war-horses  and  mules."  What  country  is  meant  by 
Togarmath  is  not  certain,  whether  Armenia,  Phrygia  or  Cappa- 
docia,  all  of  which  were  noted  for  breeding  horses.^ 

"The  men  of  Dedan  were  thy  traffickers;  many  isles  were  the 

1  In  Gen.,  X,  4,  Elishah  is  a  son  of  Javan,  i.  e.,  Ionia  or  Grecian  Asia  (A.  B. 
Davidson,  Ezekiel,  p.  192). 

2  The  reference  is  uncertain.  No  place  called  Gammad  is  known.  Some 
read  "brave  warriors."  Vid.  Davidson,  Ezekiel,  p.  194;  Kenrick,  Phoenicia, 
p.  193. 

3  Polybius,  X,  10;  Aristotle,  De  Mir.  Ausc,  147;  Diodorus,  V,  35;  Strabo, 
III,  151. 

<  Strabo,  III,  159;  Pliny,  XXXIV,  15. 

B  Vid.  Kenrick,  Phoenicia,  212-216. 

"Strabo,  III,  175;  vid.  also  Diodorus,  V,  22. 

■'  Genesis,  X,  20;  Ezek.,  XXXII,  26,  XXXVIII,  2;  Isaiah,  XLVI,  19. 

8  Davidson,  Ezekiel,  p.  195. 

« Ibid.,  p.  196. 


mart  of  thy  hand:  they  brought  thee  in  exchange  horns  of  ivory 
and  ebony."  Dedan  is  probably  to  be  placed  on  the  Persian 
Gulf,^  and  the  ivory  and  ebony  probably  came  from  India; 
but  if  the  reading  should  be  "Rhodians"  as  the  LXX  translates, 
the  ivory  and  ebony  must  have  come  from  central  Africa  by  way 
of  Rhodes. 

"Syria  was  thy  merchant  by  reason  of  the  multitude  of  thy 
handy  works:  they  traded  for  thy  wares  with  emeralds,  purple, 
and  broidered  work,  and  fine  hnen,  and  coral,  and  rubies."^ 

"  Judah  and  the  land  of  Israel,  they  were  thy  traffickers :  they 
traded  for  thy  merchandise  wheat  of  Minnith,^  and  pannag,^ 
and  honey,  and  oil  and  balm."  The  importance  of  Judah  and 
Israel  in  the  commerce  of  Tyre  at  a  later  time  was  indicated 
by  the  record  of  the  eagerness  of  the  Tyrians  and  Sidonians  to 
pacify  Herod  because  "their  country  was  fed  from  the  king's 

"  Damascus  was  thy  merchant  for  the  multitude  of  thy  handy- 
works,  by  reason  of  the  multitude  of  all  kinds  of  riches :  with  the 
wine  of  Helbon,  and  white  wool."  Helbon  has  been  identified 
with  Chalbun,  northeast  of  Damascus.^  This  wine  was  a  choice 
drink  among  the  ancients.^ 

"Vedan  and  Javan  traded  with  yarn  for  thy  wares:  bright 
iron,  cassia  and  calamus,  were  among  thy  merchandise.^  Dedan 
was  thy  trafficker  with  precious  cloths  for  riding;  Arabia  and  all 
the  princes  of  Kedar,  they  were  the  merchants  of  thy  hand:  in 
lambs,  and  rams,  and  goats,  in  these  were  they  thy  merchants." 
Kedar  was  an  important  people  of  north  Arabia.^ 

1  Vid.  Ezek.,  XXV,  13;  XXVII,  20;  Jer.,  XLIX,  8;  Isa.,  XXI,  13. 
^  At  this  point  the  text  is  uncertain.     Vid.  LXX. 
3  Vid.  Judges,  XI,  33;  but  LXX  reads  "ointments." 

*  A  term  unknown  elsewhere. 
<>  Acts,  XII,  20. 

6  A.  B.  Davidson,  Ezekiel,  p.  197. 

^  Hosea,  XIV,  7;  Song  of  Solomon,  VIII,  11;  for  frequent  mention  in 
Assyrian  inscriptions  vid.  Shrader,  Cuneiform  Inscriptions  and  the  Old  Testa- 
ment (Translation  of  Whitehouse,  London,  1888),  p.  121;  vid.  also  Strabo, 
XV,  3. 

*  Text  uncertain;  cf.  LXX;  Davidson,  Ezekiel,  p.  198. 
»  Gen.,  XXV,  13;  Isa.,  LX,  7;  Jer.,  XLIX,  28  et  al. 


"The  traffickers  of  Sheba  and  Raamah,  they  were  thy  traf- 
fickers: they  traded  for  thy  wares  with  chief  of  all  spices,  and 
with  all  precious  stones  and  gold."  Sheba  was  in  the  southwest 
of  Arabia;  her  caravans^  traded  with  gold,  precious  stones,  and 

"Haran^  and  Canneh^  and  Eden,^  the  traffickers  of  Sheba, 
Asshur  and  Chilmad,^  were  thy  traffickers.  These  were  thy 
traffickers  in  choice  wares,  in  wrappings  of  blue  and  broidered 
work,  and  in  chests  of  rich  apparel,  bound  with  cords  and  made 
of  cedar,  among  thy  merchandise.  The  ships  of  Tarshish  were 
thy  caravans  for  thy  merchandise:  and  thou  wast  replenished, 
and  made  very  glorious  in  the  heart  of  the  seas."  The  "ships 
of  Tarshish"  were  a  type  of  great  ships  strong  enough  for  the 
longest  voyage.^  The  camel  has  been  called  the  ship  of  the 
desert;  here  the  procession  of  ocean  vessels  is  spoken  of  as  a 
caravan  bringing  treasures  to  Tyre. 

Such  was  the  world-wide  commerce  of  Tyre  in  the  days  of 
her  glory.  Her  seamen  were  doubtless  among  the  Phoenicians 
who  circumnavigated  Africa  611-605  B.C.^ 

A  blow  was  struck,  more  serious  to  the  commerce  of  Tyre 
than  any  of  the  fearful  sieges  through  which  she  passed,  when 
Alexandria  was  founded  and  trade  diverted  to  it.^  Later  she 
suffered  still  further  when  Rome  made  herself  the  center  of  the 
world's  affairs.  However,  Tyre  continued  to  flourish  as  a  com- 
mercial center.^  Jerome  left  record  of  her  commercial  prosperity 
in  his  time  (340-420  A.D.).^°  When  we  come  to  the  period  of 
the  Crusades,  while  Tyre  has  her  own  ships,  her  navy  is  inferior 
to  that  of  Egypt;  and  Genoa,  Venice  and  Pisa  have  come  to  be 

1  Job,  VI,  19;  I  Kings,  X,  2;  Isa.,  XL,  6;  Jer.,  VI,  20  et  al. 

2  In  Mesopotamia,  Gen.,  XI,  31;  XII,  4;  XXVII,  43;  XXVIII,  10  et  al. 
»  Perhaps  Calneh  (Gen.,  X,  10)  or  Calno  (Isa.,  X,  9). 

*  Named  in  connection  with  Haran  in  Isa.,  XXXVII,  12. 
^  Location  unknown.     Vid.  LXX,  in  loco. 
®  Vid.  p.  21  above. 
^  Herodotus,  IV,  42. 

8  Vid.  p.  67  above. 

9  Strabo,  XVI,  2-23. 
"  Vid.  p.  78  above. 


leaders  in  the  world's  commerce.^  From  the  time  of  her  fall  in 
1291  A.D.,  Tyre  lay  in  ruins  for  five  hundred  years.  The 
present  petty  trade  of  Tyre,  dim  shadow  of  a  mighty  past,  is 
described  on  page  132  above. 

From  an  early  date  Tyre  was  occupied  not  only  with  trafiicking 
in  the  merchandise  of  others,  but  with  manufacturing  also.  In 
ancient  times  she  was  famous  for  her  works  in  metallurgy.  It 
was  a  Tyrian  artist  who  constructed  for  Solomon  the  splendid 
works  in  bronze  which  were  among  the  glories  of  the  Temple  at 
Jerusalem,  the  two  massive  pillars  Jachin  and  Boaz,  and  the 
great  laver  called  a  "molten  sea,"  fifteen  feet  in  diameter  and 
supported  by  twelve  oxen  arranged  in  groups  of  three.^  The 
same  artist  fashioned  also  "the  golden  altar,  and  the  table 
whereupon  the  showbread  was,  of  gold;  and  the  candlesticks, 
five  on  the  right  side  and  five  on  the  left,  before  the  oracle,  of 
pure  gold;  and  the  flowers,  and  the  lamps,  and  the  tongs,  of 
gold;  and  the  cups,  and  the  snuffers,  and  the  basins,  and  the 
spoons,  and  the  firepans,  of  pure  gold;  and  the  hinges,  both  for 
the  doors  of  the  inner  house,  the  most  holy  place,  and  for  the 
doors  of  the  house,  to  wit,  of  the  temple,  of  gold."^ 

"To  cast  pillars  of  bronze,  eighteen  cubits  high  and  twelve 
in  circumference,  with  capitals  of  the  same  material,  five  cubits 
high;  a  molten  sea  supported  by  twelve  brazen  oxen;  the  ten 
movable  lavers  of  brass,  with  their  bases  and  bronze  wheels, 
would  be  no  slight  task  even  for  modern  skill. "^  Tyre's  skill  in 
artistic  metal  work  continued  until  the  time  of  her  fall.  Nasir-i- 
Khusrau,  visiting  the  city  in  1047  A.D.,  saw  in  her  bazaar 
"lamps  and  lanterns  of  gold  and  silver."^ 

Another  industry  for  which  the  city  was  famous  was  the 
manufacture  of  textile  fabrics.  At  the  construction  of  the 
Temple  at  Jerusalem  they  showed  skill  in  purple  and  in  blue 

^  Vid.  p.  87  et  seq.  above. 

2 1  Kings,  VII,  13-47;  II  Chron.,  Ill,  15;  IV,  4. 

3 1  Kings,  VII,  48-50. 

*  Kenrick,  Phoenicia,  p.  250.     Vid.  Rawlinson,  Phoenicia,  p.  285. 

'  Vid.  p.  85  above. 


and  in  fine  linen.^  The  veil  of  the  temple  was  made  of  blue  and 
purple  and  crimson  and  fine  linen,^  The  weaving  of  textile 
fabrics  continued  to  be  an  important  industry  throughout  the 
period  of  Tyre's  greatness.  Idrisi  writing  in  1154  A.D.  says 
"They  make  also  a  sort  of  white  clothes-stuff  which  is  exported 
thence  to  all  parts,  being  extremely  fine,  and  well-woven  beyond 
compare.  The  price  is  very  high;  and  in  but  few  neighboring 
countries  do  they  make  as  good  a  stuff.  "^ 

A  third  important  industry  was  the  manufacture  of  glass. 
The  pillar  of  the  temple  of  Melkart  which  "shone  brightly  in 
the  night  "^  must  have  been  a  hollow  cylinder  of  green  glass  in 
which  a  lamp  perpetually  burned.^  Sidon  was  credited  as  being 
the  place  of  the  discovery  of  the  art  of  making  glass. ^  This 
belief  indicates  extensive  glass  manufacture  to  be  accounted  for. 
The  sands  of  the  seashore  near  Tyre  were  believed  to  be  especially 
adapted  to  the  making  of  the  best  kind  of  glass.^  The  glass 
work  of  Tyre  was  famous  in  the  Middle  Ages.^  Mukaddasi, 
writing  of  the  industries  of  Syria  in  the  tenth  century,  says, 
"  From  Tyre,  came  glass  beads,  glass  vessels  both  cut  and  blown. "^ 
Idrisi  in  1154  wrote,  "They  make  here  long-necked  vases  of 
glass."^°  The  Crusaders  referred  with  admiration  to  the  skill  of 
the  Tyrians  in  this  work.^^ 

Two  pieces  of  glass,  probably  from  Tyre,^^  which  were  for  a 
long  time  considered  as  works  in  precious  stone,  illustrate  the 
Phoenician  art  of  glass  making  at  its  best.     The  one  is  a  vase 

1 II  Chron.,  II,  14. 
2 II  Chron.,  Ill,  14. 
«  Vid.  p.  100  above. 
*  Herodotus,  II,  44. 

5  Vid.  p.  148  below.  There  were  two  great  pillars  of  glass  in  the  temple  at 
Aradus  (Clement  of  Rome,  Recognitions,  7,  12).  Vid.  Kenrick,  Phoenicia, 
p.  249. 

6  Pliny,  XXXVI,  65. 
^  Vid.  p.  94  above. 

8  Vid.  G.  Migeon,  Manuel  d'Art  Musulman  (Paris,  1907),Vol.  II,  pp.  344-345. 

9  Vid.  p.  85  above. 
1"  Vid.  p.  100  above. 
"1  Vid.  p.  95  above. 

12  G.  Migeon,  Manuel  d'Art  Musulman,  Vol.  II,  p,  348. 


in  the  cathedral  of  Genoa,  whose  purity  of  material  and  liveliness 
of  color  have  caused  it  often  to  be  taken  for  an  enormous  emerald. 
The  tradition  was  that  it  was  presented  to  Solomon  by  the 
Queen  of  Sheba.  It  was  in  the  mosque  of  Caesarea  when  the 
Crusaders  captured  that  city  in  1100  A.D.  The  other  piece, 
because  of  its  blue  color,  was  long  considered  as  a  sapphire. 
It  is  among  the  treasures  of  the  basilica  of  Monza.^ 

Late  in  her  history  Tyre  produced  sugar,  and  from  her  refin- 
eries, sent  it  out  to  distant  lands.^ 

But  by  far  the  most  important  of  the  industries  of  Tyre  was 
the  manufacture  of  purple  dyes.  This  industry  was  so  ancient 
and  so  important  to  the  city  that  the  discovery  of  the  art  was 
attributed  to  their  tutelary  deity  Melkart.  The  legend  was 
that  Hercules  (Melkart)  was  walking  on  the  seashore  with  the 
nymph  Tyrus,  with  whom  he  was  enamoured.  His  dog  found  a 
Murex  with  its  head  protruding  from  its  shell,  and  devoured  it. 
When  the  nymph  saw  the  beautiful  color  left  on  the  lips  of  the 
dog,  she  refused  the  suit  of  Hercules  until  he  should  bring  her  a 
robe  of  like  beauty.  He  collected  the  shell  fish,  secured  the 
juice,  and  dyed  for  her  the  first  garment  of  Tyrian  purple.^ 

The  kind  of  shell-fish  from  which  the  purple  was  secured  was 
rare  elsewhere,  but  abundant  along  the  coast  near  Tyre.  There 
are  two  species,  the  Murex  and  the  Buccinum.  The  coloring 
matter  is  found  in  a  sack,  or  vein,  which  begins  at  the  head  of 
the  animal  and  follows  the  line  of  the  body.  The  matter  is  a 
liquid  of  creamy  consistency,  and  while  in  the  sack,  is  of  yellowish- 
white  color.  When  extracted  and  exposed  to  the  light,  it  be- 
comes first  green,  then  purple.^ 

Pliny^  has  left  us  a  detailed  account  of  the  process  of  manu- 
facturing the  dye.  Fish  traps  baited  with  mussels  or  frogs  were 
let  down  by  ropes  into  the  sea.  When  the  Murex  was  caught 
the  sack  was  removed  while  the  animal  was  yet  alive,  or  after 

»  G.  Migeon,  Manuel  d'Art  Musulman,  Vol.  II,  p.  348. 
2  Vid.  pp.  85  and  86  above. 
'  Nonnus,  Dionys.,  XL,  306. 
*  Rawlinson,  Phoenicia,  pp.  276-277. 

5  Pliny,  Hist.  Nat.,  IX,  38.  Vid.  Kenrick,  Phoenicia,  237-244,  253-259; 
Rawlinson,  Phoenicia,  275-280. 


it  had  been  killed  with  a  blow;  slow  death  injured  the  color. 
The  Buccinum  being  smaller,  the  sack  was  not  extracted,  but 
the  body  crushed  with  the  shell.  After  a  maceration  three 
days  in  brine,  the  pulp  was  placed  in  a  vessel  of  lead  and  caused 
to  simmer.  The  animal  matter  was  removed  by  repeated 
skimmings,  and  at  the  end  of  ten  days  the  liquor  became  clear. 
It  was  then  boiled  until  the  desired  strength  was  attained. 
Various  color  effects  were  secured  by  mixing  dyes,  and  by 
exposure  to  sunlight  at  different  stages  of  the  process.  It  is 
probable  that  there  were  secrets  in  the  art  that  were  carefully 

Strabo^  writes :  "  The  Tyrian  purple  is  acknowledged  to  be  the 
best;  the  fishing  is  carried  on  not  far  away.  Tyre  possesses 
everything  necessary  for  the  dyeing.  It  is  true  that  the  work- 
shops of  so  many  dyers  makes  residence  in  the  city  incom- 
modious, but  it  is  to  the  skill  of  her  workmen  in  this  branch  of 
her  industry  that  the  city  owes  her  wealth."  The  production 
of  purple  was  the  city's  chief  industry  in  the  first  century.^ 

The  Roman  emperors  were  very  jealous  of  the  royal  purple. 
Its  general  sale  was  prohibited  by  law.^  The  superintendency 
of  the  dye  houses  of  Tyre  became  a  public  office  and  was  filled 
by  an  appointee  of  the  crown.^ 

1  Strabo,  XVI,  2-23. 

2  Pliny,  Hist.  Nat,,  V,  17. 

'  Vid.  Kenrick,  Phoenicia,  pp.  246-247. 
*  Vid.  p.  75  above. 




While  the  religion  of  ancient  Tyre  had  much  in  common 
with  that  of  the  rest  of  Phoenicia,  it  had  also  its  distinguishing 
features;  it  was  dominated  by  the  worship  of  Melkart,  the 
tutelary  deity  of  the  city.^  According  to  the  Phoenician  the- 
ogony  of  Sanchoniathon  preserved  by  Philo  of  Byblus,^  Melkart 
was  the  son  of  Demarous,  also  called  Zeus,  who  was  the  son  of 
Ouranus  and  brother  of  Chronus.     His  name,  Hip  T|7D,  King 

of  the  City,  expresses  his  relation  to  Tyre.  He  appears  in 
Greek  mythology  under  the  name  Melicertes  with  the  attributes 
of  a  maritime  divinity,  and  identified  with  Hercules.^  Wherever 
his  worship  was  estabhshed,  there  the  Greeks  supposed  that 
Hercules  had  performed  some  exploit  by  which  he  proved 
himself  superior  to  the  native  gods  and  heroes  of  the  country: 
so  that  the  triumphs  of  the  people  of  Melkart  seem  to  be  the 
facts  underlying  the  Greek  myths  of  the  labors  of  Hercules.^ 

A  table  of  sacrifices  and  dues,^  originally  from  Carthage,  has 
come  down  to  us,  which  indicates  that  the  sacrificial  institutions 
of  the  Phoenicians  had  much  in  common  with  those  of  the 
Hebrews,  and  expressed  similar  religious  ideas.  To  Baal  were 
sacrificed  prayer  offerings,  thank  offerings,  whole  offerings, 
meal  offerings.  It  is  worthy  of  note,  however,  that  the  Phoe- 
nician list  makes  no  mention  of  a  sin  offering  or  guilt  offering. 
The  offerings  in  the  main  are  the  same.     On  the  Phoenician 

^  Melkart  is  called  Lord  of  Tyre,  Corpus  Inscriptionum  Semiticarum  (cited 
below  CIS.),  120,  CIS.  122,  et  al. 

^Eusebius,  Praep.  Evang.,  I,  9,  10.  Vid.  Migne,  Patrologae  (Paris,  1857), 
Vol.  XXI,  p.  71  ff. 

*  MeXiKdpOos,  6  xdt  'Hpa/cXr??,  Sanchoniathon. 

*  Kenrick,  Phoen.,  pp.  321-322.  Cicero,  De  Natura  Deorum,  III,  16,  says 
that  Tyrian  Hercules  was  the  son  of  Jupiter  and  Asteria,  i.  e.,  of  Baal  and 

» CIS.  I,  165,  c.  4th  cent.  B.C. 



inscription  oxen,  sheep,  goats,  birds  and  produce  are  mentioned 
in  the  same  order  as  in  Leviticus  I-II;  but  the  Phoenician  hst 
includes  also  deer,  wild  birds,  game,  milk  and  fat.  The  priests 
and  the  worshipers  share  the  parts  of  the  sacrifice  as  in  Leviticus. 
The  poor  man  is  provided  relief  in  both  systems.'^ 

The  Tyrians,  by  extolling  Melkart  to  the  supreme  place  in 
their  religion,  identified  him  with  Baal.^  He  is  lord  of  the 
sun,^  supreme  ruler,  giver  of  life,  embodiment  of  the  male  prin- 
ciple, god  of  productivity. 

His  ancient  shrine  at  Tyre  was  built  at  the  time  of  the  founding 
of  the  city.*  King  Hiram  erected  in  his  honor  a  splendid  temple 
in  a  prominent  place  on  the  side  of  the  island  farthest  from  the 

Where  was  the  temple  of  Melkart?  "Some  years  ago," 
writes  Dr.  Thompson,  "  the  quarriers  who  were  digging  out  stone 
for  the  government  barracks  at  Beirut  uncovered  a  large  floor 
a  few  feet  below  the  surface.  Breaking  it  up  and  descending 
through  rubbish  some  ten  feet  further,  they  came  upon  a  marble 
pavement,  and  a  confused  mass  of  columns  of  every  size  and 
variety.  I  went  down  and  groped  about  amid  these  prostrate 
columns,  and  found  the  bases  of  some  still  in  their  original 
positions — parts  of  what  was  once  a  temple.  In  an  adjoining 
excavation  was  found  a  marble  statue  of  a  female,  life  sized, 
robed  and  in  good  preservation.  This  ancient  temple  stood  in 
the  centre  and  highest  part  of  the  island  and  must  have  been  very 
conspicuous  from  the  sea. 

"  The  floor  above  these  ruins  belonged  to  a  house  which  must 

^  Cooke,  North-Semitic  Inscriptions  (cited,  Cooke,  N.  S.  I.,  below),  p.  117. 
Vid.  CIS.  I,  176  (Cooke,  N.  S.  I.,  43),  4-3  cent,  B.C. 

2  Melkart  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Old  Testament,  but  the  worship  intro- 
duced into  Israel  by  Jezebel  of  Tyre  was  undoubtedly  offered  to  him.  Vid. 
Cooke,  N.  S.  I.,  p.  74. 

^  Tbv  i^\i.ov  iv6fu^ov  fjjbvov  oipavoO  K'OpwVy  BeeXffdfMjv  KdXovres.  (EJ'DJJ'  Py^), 

"  Herod.,  II,  44. 

*  Joseph.,  Antiq.,  V,  2,  7,  Against  Apion,  I,  17-18.  For  discussion  of  site 
vid.  Maspero,  Struggle  of  the  Nations,  p.  186;  Renan,  Mis.  de  Phen.,  534-559. 
One  wonders  if  the  ruins  of  this  temple  may  not  come  to  light. 


have  been  destroyed  before  the  city  of  the  Middle  Ages  was 
built;  and  yet  those  ruins  were  there  buried  so  deep  below  the 
surface  that  the  builder  of  that  house  had  not  the  slightest  idea 
of  their  existence.  That  group  of  columns  and  marble  floor 
was  again  covered  up  by  the  quarriers  in  their  search  for  available 
building  stones.  The  southern  half  of  the  island  is  buried  deep 
beneath  such  ruins. "^ 

The  ancient  temple  of  Melkart  in  Palaetyrus  at  which  the 
Tyrians  asked  Alexander  to  make  his  sacrifice  to  Heracles,^ 
probably  stood  on  Tel  al-Ma'shuk.^  This  was  probably  the 
temple  of  the  fabled  Shamenrum  as  the  ancient  island  shrine  was 
that  of  Usoos.^  The  temple  on  Tel  al-Ma'shuk  was  called  that 
of  Baalshamin  of  the  starry  tunic,  AaTpoxiT6vo<;.^  We  know 
that  in  the  great  temple  of  the  island  city  there  were  two  splendid 
pillars;^  one  was  of  gold  and  the  other  was  said  to  be  of  "smarag- 
dus"  (emerald),  but  was  probably  of  glass  and  hollow,  and 
seems  to  have  been  constantly  lighted  from  within.  It  was 
in  commemoration  of  these  pillars  that  the  Pillars  of  Hercules 
at  the  strait  had  their  name.  Although  a  number  of  temples 
had  twin  pillars,^  the  symbolism  is  obscure.^  The  worship  in 
the  early  centuries  was  probably  without  the  use  of  an  image 
of  any  kind.  Herodotus  mentions  none  at  the  time  of  his 
investigation.^     A  century  and  a   quarter  after  his  visit  the 

1  Thompson,  The  Land  and  the  Book,  III,  pp.  617  flf. 

*  Vid.  p.  55  above. 

»  Renan,  Mis.  de  Ph^n.,  582-583;  Masp^ro,  Struggle  of  the  Nations,  186. 

*  Sanchoniathon. 

6  Nonnus,  Dionys.,  XL,  369  flf.;  Movers,  182-184. 

« Herod.,  II.,  44. 

^  Tyre,  Baalbek,  Jerusalem,  Gades,  et  al. 

« W.  Robertson  Smith,  Religion  of  the  Semites,  pp.  456-457,  argues  that 
neither  they  nor  the  masseboth  were  phalic,  as  Movers,  I,  680,  had  claimed. 
Curtis,  Primitive  Semitic  Religion  Today  (Chicago,  1902),  pp.  84-88,  describes 
a  number  of  sacred  stones  in  different  places  and  of  various  shapes  and  forms. 
He  says  (p.  84),  "At  Ezra  in  the  Hauran  are  two  pillars  between  which  a  bas- 
tard cannot  pass";  and,  "at  a  village  in  the  Druse  mountains  are  two  upright 
stones  between  which  bridal  couples  must  pass." 

»  Herod.,  II,  44.  There  was  no  image  in  the  temple  of  Melkart  at  Gades 
(Silius  ItaUcus,  III,  21-31). 


image  seems  to  have  come  to  have  a  place  in  worship,  for  in 
the  city's  distress  during  Alexander's  siege  the  Tyrians,  fearing 
that  the  gods  were  about  to  forsake  the  doomed  city,  chained 
the  image  of  Apollo  in  the  temple.^  It  is  probable  that  this 
image  was  used  in  the  worship  of  Melkart,  and  that  he  as  the 
sun-god  was  identified  with  Phoebus  Apollo.  As  the  sun-god, 
the  god  of  light  and  of  fire,  Melkart  was  worshiped  by  having  a 
fire  burn  perpetually  in  his  temple  at  Gades^  and  we  may  assume 
that  the  illuminated  pillar  of  the  temple  at  Tyre  had  the  same 
symbolism.  His  priests  had  their  heads  shaved;^  they  were 
barefooted  and  wore  garments  of  spotless  white  linen  before  his 
altar.'*  They  held  pork  in  abomination.^  Married  women  were 
not  allowed  to  approach  the  altar .^ 

Festivals  similar  to  those  of  Adonis  at  Byblus  were  held  in  the 
honor  of  Melkart  twice  a  year.  When  the  prolonged  heat  of 
the  summer  would  burn  everything  up,  he  won  for  the  earth 
the  favor  of  the  sky  by  offering  himself  a  sacrifice  to  the  sun. 
The  festival  of  this  sacrifice  was  kept  at  Tyre.^  In  the  month 
Peritius  (February-March)  the  festival  of  the  awakening  or 
resurrection  of  Melkart,  rov  EpuKXeovi  iye'pai^,^  was  com- 
memorated. It  may  be  that  the  sarcasm  of  Elijah  (I  Kings, 
XVIII,  27)  has  reference  to  this  belief  regarding  Melkart.  This 
festival  was  at  the  time  of  the  year  when  the  quail  return  to 
Palestine  and  it  is  claimed  that  the  sacrifice  of  quail  commem- 
orated the  awakening  of  Melkart.^  It  has  been  suggested  that 
the  Arabic  sumdna,  quail,  gave  the  name  to  the  god  Eshmun, 
lolaos,  who  restored  Hercules  to  life  by  giving  him  a  quail  to 

^  Vid.  p.  61  above.  This  image  has  been  sent  to  Tyre  by  the  people  of 

2  Silius  ItaUcus,  III,  21-31. 

"  Ibid. 

4  Ibid. 

5  Ibid. 
« Ibid. 

'  Clement  of  Rome,  Recognitions,  X,  24. 

8  Joseph.,  Antiq.,  VIII,  5,  3:  Movers,  Die  Phon.,  385-387. 

9  Eudoxus,  ap.  Athen.,  IX,  47.     Vid.  W.  R.  Smith,  Relig.  of  Semites,  p.  469. 

10  Smith,  Relig.  of  Semites,  469. 


At  the  time  of  Antioehus  Epiphanes  a  great  celebration  in 
honor  of  Hercules  was  held  at  Tyre  every  fifth  year.  At  this 
celebration  athletic  games  had  a  prominent  place,  and  costly 
sacrifices  and  offerings  were  made.^ 

The  heavy  cost  of  the  elaborate  worship  of  Melkart  was  met 
by  tithes  and  offerings.  We  are  told  that  the  Carthaginians 
sent  the  tithe  of  their  produce  to  Tyre  annually  from  the  founda- 
tion of  their  city,  as  their  offering  to  Melkart.^ 

Were  human  sacrifices  offered  to  Melkart?  Moloch  of  the 
Ammonites  was  probably  akin  to  Melkart  as  a  god  of  the  sun 
and  of  fire.  Human  sacrifices  were  offered  to  Moloch.^  They 
were  offered  Baal  in  Cyprus,  Rhodes,  Crete,  Sardinia,  and  such 
offerings  were  very  common  at  Carthage.^  It  is  said  that  they 
were  frequently  offered  in  times  of  great  calamity  in  Phoenicia 
proper,^  but  that  the  practice  was  extremely  rare  at  Tyre  is 
shown  by  the  fact  that  no  record  of  any  human  sacrifice  has  come 
down  to  us,  and  by  the  further  fact  that  even  at  the  time  of 
Alexander's  siege  no  such  offering  was  made.^  To  consider  the 
practice  a  part  of  the  religion  of  Tyre  is  quite  as  unwarranted  as 
to  make  the  same  inference  concerning  the  religion  of  Israel  be- 
cause of  the  record  of  Abraham  and  Isaac,^  and  that  of  Jephthah 
and  his  daughter.^ 

The  chief  female  deity  of  the  Semites  was  worshiped  by  the 

Phoenicians  under  the  name  Ashteroth.     She  was  called  the 

daughter  of  Uranus  and  queen  of  heaven.^     As  a  symbol  of  her 

sovereignty  she  had  the  head  of  a  bull  upon  her  head.'°    An 

aerolite  was  consecrated  to  her  in  her  temple  in  "  the  holy  island 

Tyre.""     She  was  identified  with  the  moon  and  called  ruler  of 

1 II  Maccabees,  IV,  18-20.     Vid.  p.  68  above. 

2  Diodorus,  XX,  14. 

»  Lev.,  XX,  2-5;  Jer.,  VII,  31. 

*  Vid.  Movers,  I,  299-305. 

*  Eusebius,  Praep.  Evan.  IV,  16.    Vid.  Migne,  Patrologae,  Vol.  XXI,  p.  271. 
'  Vid.  p.  61  above. 

■•  Gen.,  XXII. 

*  Judges,  XI. 

>  Sanchoniathon. 

>"  Ibid. 

"  Ibid.     Such  sacred  stones  were  called  Baetulia  in  the  writing  of  San- 


stars.^  To  her  the  women  offered  cakes,  burned  incense  and 
paid  vows.^  She  was  identified  with  air  and  water  as  over 
against  fire.^  When  Usoos,  the  first  who  ventured  on  the 
sea,  according  to  the  Phoenician  myth,  landed  at  Tyre,  he 
consecrated  two  pillars,  one  to  fire  and  the  other  to  wind;^ 
this  probably  means  that  they  were  consecrated,  one  to  Baal 
and  the  other  to  Ashteroth.  These  two  deities  were  closely 
related.  In  the  inscription  of  Eshmunazer,^  Ashteroth  is 
called  7^^  J2\^,  "Name  of  Baal."  As  Tanith,  she  is  called  in  a 
Carthaginian  inscription  7^^  JD,  "  Face  of  Baal."*  At  Tyre, 
their  close  relationship  was  represented  by  the  legend  that  he 
had  purchased  her  favor  by  the  gift  of  the  first  robe  of  Tyrian 
purple  ever  dyed.'^ 

It  is  probable  that  the  sexual  act  had  place  in  the  Baal- 
Ashteroth  worship  at  Tyre  as  elsewhere.  It  was  an  act  of 
worship  for  a  woman  to  have  intercourse  with  a  stranger  at  a 
temple  of  Ashteroth.^  The  feast  of  Adonis  at  Byblus  is  described 
as  follows:  "But  when  they  have  bewailed  and  lamented,  first 
they  perform  funeral  rites  for  Adonis  as  if  he  were  dead,  but 
afterward  upon  another  day  they  say  he  lives,  .  .  .  and  they 
shave  their  heads  as  the  Egyptians  do  when  Apis  dies.  But 
such  women  as  do  not  wish  to  be  shaven  pay  the  following 
penalty;  on  a  certain  day  they  stand  for  prostitution  at  the 
proper  time  and  the  market  is  open  for  strangers  only,  and  the 
pay  goes  as  a  sacrifice  to  Aphrodite."^ 

Regarding  the  Baal  and  Ashteroth  worship  in  Israel,  Hosea 

choniathon.  The  name  looks  like  7S  T)''2  Bethel,  the  name  which  Jacob  gave 
to  the  place  where  he  consecrated  a  pillar  of  stone  (Gen.,  XXVIII). 

^  Herodian,  5,  15. 

2Jer.,  VII,  8;  XLIV,  25. 

*  Vid.  Kenrick,  Phoenicia,  303. 

^  Sanchoniathon. 

6CIS.  3  (Cooke  N.S.I,  5). 

«  CIS.  181  (Cooke  N.  S.  I,  48). 

^  Pollux,  Onomasticon,  I,  45;  Nonnus,  Dionys.,  XL,  306. 

8  Herod.,  I,  199;  Strabo,  XVI,  1,  20. 

9  Lucian,  De  Dea  Syria,  6:  Vid.  Barton,  Journ.  Bib.  Lit.,  X,  72  S.  There 
were  barbers  officiating  at  the  temple  of  Ashteroth,  CIS.  86  (Cooke,  N.  S.  1, 20) . 


protested:  "They  sacrifice  upon  the  tops  of  the  mountains,  and 
burn  incense  upon  the  hills,  and  under  the  oaks  and  poplars  and 
terebinths,  because  the  shade  thereof  is  good;  therefore  your 
daughters  commit  whoredom  and  your  brides  commit  adultery."^ 

We  gladly  turn  to  the  higher  ideals  of  worship.  W.  Robertson 
Smith  says:  "There  is  a  great  variety  of  evidence  to  show  that 
the  type  of  religion  which  is  founded  on  kinship,  and  in  which 
the  deity  and  his  worshipers  make  up  a  society  united  by  the 
bond  of  blood,  was  widely  prevalent,  and  that  at  an  early  time, 
among  all  the  Semitic  peoples.^  The  religion  of  Tyre  was  of 
this  type.  The  first  families  of  the  aristocracy  both  of  Tyre  and 
of  Carthage  prided  themselves  that  they  were  descendants  of 
Melkart.^  Proper  names  beginning  with  Ger  ("*U),  sojourner, 
followed  by  the  name  of  a  deity,  indicate  that  there  were  those 
who  were  not  of  the  religion  by  birth,  to  whom  the  god  became 
a  patron  and  protector. 

The  most  common  objects  of  prayer  indicated  by  the  inscrip- 
tions that  have  come  down  to  us,  are  prosperity,  long  life,  divine 
favor  and  numerous  offspring.'*  An  oft  repeated  assurance  is 
that  the  deity  hears  prayer.^  Disturbing  a  grave  is  an  abomi- 
nation to  Ashteroth.^  The  two  great  future  hopes  are  seed  among 
the  living  and  a  resting  place  among  the  shades  in  the  lower 
world  .'^ 

That  private  or  family  devotion  had  its  place  in  the  ancient 
faith  is  shown  by  a  little  monument  recently  found  in  the  region 
of  Tyre.^  The  monument  is  a  small  throne  a  foot  and  a  half 
high  cut  in  limestone.  The  throne  is  flanked  by  two  sphinxes 
and  on  the  back  are  two  stelae,  the  one  with  an  image  repre- 
senting Ashteroth  and  the  other  the  worshiper.     The  inscription 

1  Hosea  IV,  13.     Vid.  also  Deut.,  XXIII,  17-18;  II  Kings,  XXIII,  7. 

2  W.  R.  Smith,  Relig.  of  Sem.,  pp.  50-51. 

2  Virgil,  Aen.,  I,  729;  Silius  Italicus,  Punica,  I,  87. 

*  CIS.  I,  88,  122;  Cooke,  N.  S.  I.,  29  et  al. 

B  CIS.  11,  13,  88,  122,  181;  Cooke,  N.  S.  I.,  55  et  al. 

«  Cooke,  N.  S.  I.,  4. 

'  Cooke,  N.  S.  I.,  4;  CIS.  3  (Cooke,  N.  S.  I.,  5). 

8  Vid.  Acad^mie  des  Inscriptions  et  Belles-lettres,  Comptes  Rendus,  1907, 
pp.  589-598,  606.  It  probably  belongs  to  the  second  century  B.C.  according 
to  M.  Clairmont  Ganneau. 


reads,  "  To  my  Mistress  Ashteroth  who  is  within  the  sanctuary 
which  belongs  to  me,  Abdoubast,  son  of  Bodbaal." 

In  a  former  chapter  we  traced  the  early  history  of  Christianity 
in  Tyre,  then  the  coming  of  Islam.  With  the  period  of  the 
Crusades  Christianity  again  became  dominant,  and  yielded  only 
with  the  destruction  of  the  city.  We  close  this  chapter  with  a 
list  of  those  who  have  held  the  title  of  Bishop  of  Tyre. 


1.  Cassius.     Mentioned  by  Eusebius,  H.  E.,  V,  25. 

2.  Marinus.     Mentioned  by  Eusebius,  H.  E.,  VII,  5. 

3.  Methodius.     Jerome,  Illustrious  Men,  83. 

4.  Tyranius.     Martyr  in  time  of  Diocletian.     Eusebius,  H.  E., 

VIII,  13. 

5.  PauUnus.     Built  Cathedral.     Eusebius,  H.  E.,  X,  4. 

6.  Zeno.     At  Council  of  Nicea,  Zozoman,  H.  E.,  VI,  12. 

7.  Paul.     Athanasius,  Defence  against  the  Arians,  Book  II. 

8.  Vitalius.     Athanasius,  Defence  against  the  Arians,  Book  II. 

9.  Uranius.     Socrates,  H.  E.,  II,  40. 

10.  Zeno  II.     Zozoman,  H.  E.,  VI,  12. 

11.  Reverentius.     Socrates,  H.  E.,  VII,  36. 

12.  Cyrus.     Signed  Acts  of  Council  of  Ephesus. 

13.  Bironisyanus.     Frequently  mentioned  by  Cyril  of  Alexander. 

14.  Irenaeus.     Several  letters  to  him  in  writings  of  Theodoret. 

15.  Photius.     Member  of  Council  of  Chalcedon. 

16.  Dorotheus.     Great   Scholar.     Theophanes,    Chronographle, 


17.  John  Kodona.     Theophanes,  Chronc graphic,  5973. 

18.  Epiphanius.     Evagrius  Scholasticus,  H.  E.,  Ill,  31. 

19.  Eusebius.     Member  of  Council  of  Constantinople  in  553 

and  signed  its  acts. 

20.  Basilius.     C.  844  A.D.;  Michael  the  Syrian.     Hist.     (Ed. 

Chabot,  III,  97-100.) 

1  References  in  the  chapters  above  will  be  found  to  those  on  this  list  about 
whom  other  facts  are  known  bearing  upon  the  history  of  Tyre.  All  except 
24-32  are  cited  by  Father  Cyril  Aaron,  Al  Mashriq,  1906-1907.  References 
to  24-32  will  be  found  in  the  chapter  of  the  Period  of  the  Crusades,  above. 
For  a  translation  of  Father  Aaron's  list  I  am  indebted  to  M  r.  P.  K.  Hitti. 


21.  Thomas.     Signed  acts  of  Council  held  879-880  after  the 

death  of  the  Patriarch  Ignatius. 

22.  Saba.     C.  1100  A.D.;  afterwards  patriarch  of  Jerusalem. 

23.  Photius.     Author    of    a    history    of    Ecumenical    Councils 

according  to  Krumbacher. 

24.  Odo.     Died  1122.     Foulcher  de  Chartres,  62. 

25.  William.     Will.  Tyre,  XIII,  23. 

26.  Fulcherus.     Will.  Tyre,  XIV,  2. 

27.  Peter.     Will.  Tyre,  XVI,  17. 

28.  Frederick.     Will.  Tyre,  XIX,  6. 

29.  WilUam.     1175,  Historian  of  Crusades.   Will.  Tyre,  XVI,  17. 

30.  Philip  of  Beauvais.     1192,  Will.  Tyre,  XXIV,  14. 

31.  Simon  de  Mangastel.     1225,  Chron.  Terre  Sainte,  I,  82-92; 

Will.  Tyre,  XXXI,  10. 

32.  Bonacours.     1286,  Chron.  Temple,  Tyre,  439. 

After  the  destruction  of  the  city  (1291  A.D.)  the  empty 
title  continued :  the  following  held  it  according  to  the  list 
of  Father  Aaron.^ 

33.  Sophronius.     Mentioned  by  Nicophorus. 

34.  Irsanius.     1361.     Mentioned  in  a  letter  from  Philotheus, 

Patriarch  of  Constantinople  to  Bachamius,  Patriarch  of 

35.  Jeremiah.     Present  at  Council  of  Damascus  to  judge  the 

Bishop  of  Homs. 

36.  Joasaph. 

37.  Aftimios.     1683-1722. 

38.  Ignatius.     1723-1758. 

39.  Andreas  Fakhuri. 

40.  Perthanius  Ni'mi.     1766-1806. 

41.  Basillius  Abdallah. 

42.  Cyril. 

43.  Basillius  Zakkar. 

44.  Ignatius  Karub.     1835-18 ":4. 

45.  Athenatius  Sabbagh.     1855-1866. 

46.  Athenatius  Khawam.     1867-1886. 

47.  Aftimos  Zalhaf.     1886- 
>  Al  Mashriq,  1906-1907. 



The  coins  of  Tyre  fall  into  three  groups :  the  ancient,  that  of 
the  Saracens,  and  that  of  the  Crusaders.  Of  these  by  far  the 
most  important  is  the  ancient  coinage.  This  first  division,  in 
1903  and  1904,  was  treated  by  J.  Rouviere^  so  fully  as  to  super- 
sede all  that  had  been  previously  written  on  the  subject,  and  in 
1910  a  still  more  satisfactory  treatment  was  given  by  George  F. 
Hill.^     We  summarize  the  findings  of  Hill  as  follows: 

Going  back  to  the  beginning  of  Tyrian  coinage  about  the 
middle  of  the  fifth  century  B.C.,  he  distinguishes  the  following 
main  groups: 

'  Pre-Alexandrine,     c.  450-400  B.C.^ 

1.  ^  Pre-Alexandrine,     c.  400  B.C. 

Pre-Alexandrine,    c.  400-392  B.C. 

2.  Alexandrine. 

3.  Ptolemaic. 

4.  Seleucid. 

5.  Autonomous. 

6.  Quasi-autonomous. 

7.  Imperial  silver. 

8.  Colonial  coinage. 

1.  In  the  first  group  the  coins  are  struck  on  the  Phoenician 
standard,  and  this  persists  down  to  the  time  of  Alexander  the 
Great.  The  maximum  of  the  stater,  or  double  shekel  was  13.90 
grammes,  or  214.5  grains.  The  denominations  are  the  stater, 
the  quarter,  and  the  twenty-fourth. 

1  J.  Rouviere,  Journal  International  D'Archeologie  Numismatique,  Vol. 
VI,  pp.  269-332,  and  VII,  pp.  65-108. 

2  George  F.  Hill,  A  Catalogue  of  the  Greek  Coins  of  Phoenicia  (London, 
1910),  p.  126  ff. 

'  Rouviere  dates  our  earliest  Tyrian  coins  c.  480  B.C.  Vid.  Journal  Inter- 
national D'Archeologie  Numismatique,  Vol.  VI,  p.  269. 



The  maritime  importance  of  Tyre  is  expressed  on  the  earHest 
coins  by  the  dolphin  and  waves.  Later  the  dolphin  is  given  a 
subordinate  position,  and  the  main  type  is  Melkart  on  a  sea- 
horse. The  murex  shell  is  frequently  found  and  alludes  to  the 
local  purple  industry. 

On  the  reverse,  the  owl  often  found  may  show  Athenian 
influence,  but  it  is  rendered  so  like  the  hawk  that  some  have 
claimed  that  it  is  to  be  traced  to  that  of  Egypt,  which  is  also 
to  be  seen  in  the  flail  and  scepter,  these  being  associated  in 
Egypt  with  kingship. 

The  earliest  of  these  coins  have  obscure  dates  or  inscriptions. 

Those  with  dates  seem  to  be  followed  by  a  series  in  which 
the  thick  lumpy  fabric  was  discarded  for  a  flatter  make  of  coin. 
These  are  undated  and  uninscribed,  and  probably  bring  us 
down  to  the  time  of  Alexander. 

At  Tyre  coins  were  from  the  earHest  times  usually  struck  from 
fixed  dies;  the  exceptiorfs  are  found  in  the  small  denominations. 
The  dies  were  not  always  placed  ft)  but  sometimes  upside 
down,  sometimes  at  right  angles  to  each  other. 

Another  notable  characteristic  of  the  coinage  both  of  this 
period  and  of  the  next  is  its  bad  quality;  a  very  large  propor- 
tion of  the  coins  have  a  bronze  core. 

2.  Alexandrine  Period. — In  the  second  group,  coinage  with 
regal  types  is  continued,  but  the  standard  changes  to  Attic: 
the  denominations  are  the  didrachm  and  a  minute  coin  of  0.55- 
0.45  grammes. 

The  Attic  didrachms  are  all  dated.  Some  bear  additional 
letters;  others  bear  dates  only.  The  additional  letters  are  D 
and  1^,  probablyr  epresenting  "H^D  and  115^,  but  they  may  repre- 
sent royal  names.  In  connection  with  the  date  the  letters  ^  and  D 
sometimes  occur;  they  seem  to  represent  7pl2  H^C^D.  The 
eras  for  the  dating  of  these  are  uncertain. 

3.  Ptolemaic  Period. — The  coins  of  the  third  group,  which  are 
certainly  Tyrian,  bear  the  monogram  f  or  t°  usually  combined 
with  a   club.     Svoronos  dates  the  beginning  of  this  coinage  at 

COINS  157 

285/4  B.C.  A  certain  number  are  without  the  monogram,  but 
bear  the  club. 

Tyre  was  a  mint  of  Ptolemy  III,  247/6-241  B.C.,  Ptolemy 
IV,  and  Ptolemy  V.  The  Tyrian  coinage  of  Ptolemy  V  must 
have  ceased  after  200  B.C.,  when  the  city  finally  passed  into 
Seleucid  hands. 

4.  Seleucid. — From  the  year  200  to  126/5  B.C.,  Tyre  was  an 
important  Seleucid  mint.  Under  Antiochus  III  we  have  un- 
dated tetradrachms.  Bronze  types  of  this  coinage  show  the 
palm  tree,  the  stern  of  a  galley,  a  complete  galley,  spur  of  a 
galley.  The  silver  is  of  two  classes:  (a)  Attic  with  types, — 
Apollo  (Antiochus  III) ;  Athena  standing  (Antiochus  VII) ;  Zeus 
seated  (Demetrius  III),  and  (b)  Phoenician  with  types, — eagle 
on  prow.  The  Phoenician  was  issued  in  large  quantities;  the 
Attic  rarely.  The  Phoenician  bears  monograms  similar  to  those 
found  at  a  later  date  on  the  autonomous  coins,  but  the  Attic  is 
not  marked  in  this  way.  The  latest  date  on  a  Seleucid  coin  of 
Tyre  is  A.S.  187  (126/5  B.C.). 

The  inscriptions  on  these  Seleucid  coins  apart  from  the  mono- 
grams are: 

TTPmN  D^i!i  p^  ^)ib 

Belonging  to  Tyre  Mother  of  the  Sidonians 

Belonging  to  Tyre 

TTPmN  l^b 


The  words  IEPA2  ASTAOT  are  often  abbreviated  or  rendered 
in  monogram. 

5  and  6.  Autonomous  and  Quasi- Autonomous. — In  the  auton- 
omous coinage  of  Tyre  the  most  important  feature  is  the 
very  plentiful  series  of  shekels,  with  a  much  smaller  number  of  half 
shekels  and  very  rare  quarter  shekels  from  the  year  126/5  B.C. 
to  69-70  A.D.     The  shekel  of  the  common  norm  weighs  14.54 


to  14,60  grammes.  In  the  year  104  B.C.  (23d  year  of  the  city) 
was  issued  a  gold  double  shekel. 

The  quasi-autonomous  coinage  extends  probably  only  to  195/6 
A.D.,  and  not  to  225/6  as  Rouviere  states,  on  his  reading  of  the 
date  for  his  coin  number  2203. 

The  more  important  types  are  connected  with  Melkart  who 
appears  in  a  Hellenized  form.  The  eagle  is  probably  a  legacy 
from  the  Ptolemaic  coinage,  the  palm  tree,  (f)olvc^,  is  for  "  Phoe- 
nicia."    Other  types  express  the  maritime  activity  of  the  city. 

7.  Imperial  Coinage. — The  silver  of  imperial  date,  from  Nero 
on,  which  has  been  ascribed  to  the  mint  of  Tyre,  presents  peculiar 
diflBculty.  Some  of  these  coins  clearly  show  Tyrian  source,  and 
others  as  clearly  show  Antiochian;  while  still  others  show  both. 
It  has  been  suggested  that  all  were  probably  struck  at  Antioch, 
but  out  of  bullion  supplied  by  various  cities.  The  weights  as 
usual  are  very  irregular;  the  highest  for  a  tetradrachm  is  15.14 
grammes,  or  233.65  grains. 

8.  Colonial  Coinage. — The  coinage  from  Septimius  Severus  to 
Gallienus  is  of  interest  on  account  of  the  variety  of  types. 
The  title  on  the  coins  appears  first  as  "Coloni.  Sep.  TVRVS 
METROP."  A  coin  of  Elagabalus  bears  the  ancient  inscrip- 
tion lU  A  The  Phoenician  deities  are  to  be  found  as  types. 
The  ambrosial  rocks  (two  pillars)  appear,  also  an  ovoid  baetyl 
encircled  by  a  serpent,  for  which  the  author  has  no  explanation, 
but  which  would  seem  to  refer  to  the  theogony  of  Sanchoniathon 
referred  to  on  page  7  et  al.  above.  Heroic  legends  are  illustrated 
by  Dido  building  Carthage,  and  Aeneas  (or  perhaps  Cadmus) 
setting  sail.  Another  notable  type  is  that  of  the  reclining  figure 
of  Ocean  wearing  a  head-dress  of  crab's  claws. 

Hill  has  catalogued  and  described  four  hundred  and  ninety 
three  of  these  early  coins  of  Tyre  and  has  given  pictures  of 
every  important  variety. 

In  the  time  of  the  Fatimid  Caliphs,  Tyrian  coins  again  appear. 
The  city  had  one  of  the  principal  mints  of  these  caliphs  until 
the  time  of  its  capture  by  the  Crusaders  in  1124  A.D. 

COINS  159 

A  special  feature  of  the  coins  of  this  period  is  the  large 
proportion  of  quarter-dinars,  which  appear  to  have  been  de- 
signed mainly  for  that  part  of  the  kingdom  which  had  a  con- 
siderable Christian  population.  Images  were  omitted,  and  in 
their  place  is  found  a  profusion  of  religious  formulae  in  which 
the  praise  of  Ali  has  a  large  place.^  Very  few  silver  coins  have 
been  preserved. 

An  early  sample  of  this  coinage  is  a  quarter-dinar^  bearing  on 
its  obverse  margin  the  date  361  A.H.  and  the  stamp  of  Tyre; 
on  the  reverse  margin  it  bears  in  Arabic  the  inscription  to 
"Mu'izz,  by  authority  of  Allah,  Amir  of  the  Faithful."  Its 
weight  is  13.1  grains. 

A  dinar^  of  the  date  404  A.H.  shows  the  very  profuse  inscrip- 
tions that  were  common.  On  the  obverse  area  is  inscribed 
"ALI  (There  is  no  God  but  Allah  alone.  He  has  no  equal, 
Mohammed  is  the  messenger  of  Allah)  FAVORITE  OF 
ALLAH."  The  margin  reads,  "Mohammed  is  the  Messenger 
whom  Allah  sent."  The  reverse  area  is  inscribed,  "For  the  sake 
of  Allah  and  his  favorite,  Al-Mansur  Abu  Ali  al-Imam  al-Hakim, 
by  command  of  Allah,  Amir  of  the  Faithful."  The  margin 
reads,  "In  the  name  of  Allah  this  dinar  was  struck  in  the  year 
404  A.H."    The  coin  weighs  but  49  grains. 

The  coins  of  the  reign  of  Al-Zahir  bear  on  their  obverse 
almost  identically  the  same  inscription  as  those  just  spoken  of, 
but  in  a  slightly  different  arrangement.  On  the  reverse,  the 
margin  states  that  the  coin  was  struck  "in  the  name  of  Allah" 
at  the  date  named,  and  "for  the  sake  of  Allah  and  his  Favorite 
Ali."  The  area  bears  the  inscription  of  "The  Glorious  Al-Zahir, 
by  authority  of  Allah,  Amir  of  the  Faithful."  One  coin  of  this 
series  in  the  British  Museum  weighs  60.2  grains,  and  another 

1  The  place  of  Ali  in  these  inscriptions  is  readily  understood  when  it  is 
remembered  that  the  Fatimids  claimed  to  be  descended  from  Fatimah,  only 
wife  of  Ali  and  daughter  of  Mohammed. 

2  Stanley  Lane-Poole,  Catalogue  of  Oriental  Coins  in  British  Museum, 
Vol.  IV,  page  11,  No.  35. 

3  Ibid.     Additions  to  Vols.  I-IV,  page  320. 

*  Stanley  Lane-Poole,  Oriental  Coins  in  the  British  Museum,  IV,  page  28. 


A  popular  issue  of  Al-Mustansir  had  three  margins,  and  a 
pellet  in  the  center.  On  the  obverse  the  first  margin  was  as 
that  of  the  coins  last  described.  The  other  margin  bears  the 
usual  ascriptions  to  Mohammed  and  to  Ali  except  the  third 
margin  of  the  reverse.  It  bears  the  inscription  of  "  Al-Mustansir, 
Billah,  Amir  of  the  Faithful."  Dinars  of  this  kind  vary  in 
weight  from  45.1^  to  60  grains.^  Our  earliest  coins  of  this  kind 
date  442  A.H.  Another  type,  apparently  of  later  date,  but 
belonging  to  the  same  reign,  has  a  margin  and  central  area.  The 
inscriptions  are  of  the  usual  sentiment.  The  reverse  area  bears 
the  inscription  of  "Mustansir  Billah,  Amir  of  the  Faithful," 
while  the  margin  has  the  date  and  imprint  of  Tyre.^ 

The  coins  of  Al-Amir  show  little  variation.  They  had  an 
area  and  two  margins.  They  bear  the  usual  praises  of  Allah  and 
of  Mohammed  and  Ali.  The  inner  reverse  margin  reads,  "  Abu 
Ali  Al-Amir,  in  the  wisdom  of  Allah,  Amir  of  the  Faithful," 
while  the  outer  margin  reads,  "  In  the  name  of  Allah  the  merciful 
and  compassionate  this  dinar  was  struck  at  (place)  in  (date) 

These  bring  us  to  the  time  of  the  capture  of  Tyre  by  the 
Crusaders  in  518  A.H.  (1124  A.D.). 

When  Tyre  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Crusaders,  the  Venetians 
assumed  possession  of  the  mint.  It  will  be  remembered  that 
their  interests  were  commercial  rather  than  religious.  It  was 
therefore  to  their  advantage  to  continue  the  coinage  in  a  way 
attractive  to  the  peoples  of  the  Orient.  They  therefore  issued 
coins  on  the  standards  established  at  Tyre,  and  bearing  the  usual 
Arabic  inscriptions  of  praise  to  Allah  and  Mohammed.  It 
was  not  until  the  time  of  the  civil  strife  at  Tyre  under  Philip  of 
Montfort  that  the  Venetians  lost  this  privilege  which  they  had 

1  Stanley  Lane-Poole,  Oriental  Coins  in  the  British  Museum,  IV,  page 
41,  No.  160. 

2  Ibid.,  page  41,  No.  163;  vid.  also  page  37,  No.  145,  and  page  46,  No.  187. 
^  Ibid.,  page  45. 

*  Ibid.,  page  52,  No.  212;  and  page  58,  No.  216,  dated  515  A.  H. 

*  Gustav  Schlumberger,  Numismatique  de  L'Orient  Latin,  page  128. 

COINS  161 

These  coins  issued  by  the  Venetians  were  dated  by  the  reign 
of  the  ruHng  caHph,  and  the  year  A.H.  Properly  speaking 
they  were  pseudo-Arabic,  and  all  the  gold  coins  that  were  issued 
at  Tyre  were  probably  of  this  class.^  These  were  struck  in 
large  numbers^  until  the  year  1250  A.D.,  when  the  Papal  delegate 
with  King  Louis  interdicted  the  practice,  being  indignant  at 
seeing  the  name  of  Mohammed  on  money  issued  by  Christians.' 

The  governors  of  the  city  evidently  did  not  issue  gold  coins 
on  their  own  authority.  The  chaotic  conditions  that  prevailed 
in  the  years  following  the  Crusade  of  King  Louis  were  such  as  to 
make  the  coinage  of  gold  almost  impossible.  A  few  copper  coins, 
extremely  rare,  have  come  down  to  us  from  the  princes  of  Tyre. 
Those  issued  by  Philip  of  Montfort  bear  a  cross  surrounded  by 
two  wreaths,  between  which  appeared  the  word  P  h  e  1  i  p  e.  On 
the  reverse  are  the  letters  D  e  S  U  R  between  two  wreaths  sur- 
rounding a  temple-like  edifice.^ 

Another  copper  coin^  between  two  wreaths  around  a  central 
Cross,  has  the  inscription  lOhS  TRO,  JohnofToron.  On 
the  reverse  DE  co  U  R  appears  between  two  wreaths  surrounding 
a  temple-like  edifice.  What  the  edifice  was  meant  to  represent 
is  wholly  unknown. 

These  humble  coins  bring  us  to  the  date  of  the  city's  destruc- 
tion, 1291  A.D. 

1  Gustav  Schlumberger,  Numismatique  de  L'Orient  Latin,  page  132. 

2  See  note  1,  page  92  above. 

*  Gustav  Schlumberger,  Numismatique  de  L'Orient  Latin,  page  133. 

*  Ibid.,  page  128. 
5  Ibid.,  page  128. 



Abbar,  Judge  of  Tyre,  46. 
Abd-Ashirta,  9. 

Abd-Astartus,  King  of  Tyre,  24. 
Abdeus,  Judge  of  Tyre,  46. 
Abi-Baal,  King  of  Tyre,  16. 
Abi-Milki,  Governor  of  Tyre,  9. 
Abi-Milkut,  King  of  Sidon,  36. 
Abu-Sufy^n  before  Tyre,  81. 
Acre  (Acco),  Siege  of,  108-109. 
Adan  de  Cafran,  Governor  of  Tyre, 

Ahab,  King  of  Israel,  25. 
Al-Afdal,  Commander  of  Egypt,  85, 

88,  92. 
Alexander  the  Great,  54£f.;  Attacks 

Tyre,    55;    Constructs    Mole,    56; 

Secures  Fleet,  58;  Captures  City, 

63;   Crucifies   2,000   Tyrians,    64; 

Celebrates  Victory,  64. 
Alexandria,  Trade  diverted  ot,  67. 
Alphabet,  Origin  of,  IX. 
Amaury,  King  of  Jerusalem,  101. 
Amaury,  Governor  of  Tyre,  121. 
Amenophis  IV,  King  of  Egypt,  9. 
Antachdes,  Peace  of,  52. 
Antigonus  besieges  Tyre,  65. 
Antiochus  the  Great  takes  Tyre,  66. 
Antiochus  Epiphanes,  67. 
Antoninus  Martyr,  79. 
Apollo,  Statue  of,  61. 
Arculf,  Bishop,  84. 
Aserymus,  King  of  Tyre,  24. 
Ashteroth  (Astarte),  vid.  Religion. 
Assassins,  Sect  of.  111,  120. 
Asshurnazirpal,  King  of  Assyria,  27; 

Received  Tribute  of  Tyre,  28. 
Asshurbanipal,  King  of  Assyria,  38. 
Assyrian  Encroachment,  27ff. 
Astarte  (Ashteroth),  vid.  Religion. 
Astartus,  King  of  Tyre,  24. 
Athanasius  tried  at  Tyre,  77. 
Ayyub,  Sultan  of  Egypt,  117. 
Azemilcus,  King  of  Tyre,  55. 
Aziru,  son  of  Abd-Ashirta,  9. 

Baal  and  Ashteroth,  25-26;  Vid. 

Baal,  King  of  Tyre,  37;  Resists 
Esarhaddon,  37;  Submits  to  As- 
shurbanipal, 38. 

Baal  Lebanon  Inscription,  33. 

Baalat-Remeg,  King  of  Tyre,  13,  16 
Badezorus,  King  of  Tyre,  24. 
Baibars,  Sultan  of  Egypt,  119,  120 
Baldwin  I,  King  of  Jerusalem,  88 

Attacks  Tyre,  90. 
Baldwin  III,  King  of  Jerusalem,  100 
Baldwin  de  Bourg,  King  of  Jerusalem 

Barbarossa,      Emperor      Frederick 

Death  of,  108. 
Baslach,  Judge  of  Tyre,  46. 
Belator,  Judge  of  Tyre,  47. 
Beleasarus,  King  of  Tyre,  22,  24. 
Behan  of  Sidon,  117. 
Benjamin  of  Tudela,  101. 
Bonacours,  Archbishop' of  Tyre,  121. 
Bordeaux  Pilgrim,  78. 

Cabul  explained,  20. 

Cambyses,  King  of  the  Persians,  49. 

Carthage  founded,  24ff.,  135ff.;  Mean- 
ing of  the  Name,  32,  136. 

Cassius,  Bishop  of  Tyre,  73. 

Cassius,  rules  Syria,  70. 

Chelbes,  Judge  of  Tyre,  46. 

Christianity  introduced,  71. 

Coins  of  Tyre,  155-161. 

Colonies  of  Tyre,  5,  6,  24,  133-137. 

Commerce  of  Tyre,  20,  40,  137-142. 

Conrad  of  Montferrat,  before  Acre, 
103;  At  Tyre,  104;  Resists  Saladin, 
104ff. ;  Refused  to  admit  King  Guy, 
107;  Supports  Siege  of  Acre,  108; 
Aspires  to  Throne  of  Jerusalem, 
109;  Chosen  King,  111;  Assassi- 
nated, HI7II2. 

Constantine  issues  Edict  of  Milan,  76. 

Crete,  Early  Minoan  Power  of,  14, 137. 

Crusades,  86flf . 

Crusaders  pass  Tyre,  87;  Capture 
Jerusalem,  88;  Capture  Treasure 
Train,  89;  Attack  Tyre,  90;  Second 
Attack,  Conquest,  94ff.;  Warring 
Factions  of,  108-110,  116,  118,  119. 

Cyrus,  King  of  the  Persians,  48. 

Damietta  attacked  by  Crusaders,  116. 
Darius,  King  of  the  Persians,  50. 
David,  King  of  Israel,  17;  Friend  of 

Hiram,  King  of  Tyre,  17;  Tyrians 

build  his  Palace,  17. 




Decius,  Persecutions  under,  74. 
Demetrius  holds  Tyre,  66. 
Diocletian,   Persecutions   under,   75. 
Dorotheus,    Superintendent   of   Dye 
Works,  75. 

Earthquakes,  92,  101,  115,  128. 
Ecnibaal,  Judge  of  Tyre,  46. 
Elijah,  25;  On  Mt.  Carmel,  26. 
Eluleus,  King  of  Tyre,  34;  Reduces 

Revolt    in    Cyprus,    34;    Resists 

Shalmanezer  IV,  34;  Defeated  by 

Sennacherib,  35. 
Esarhaddon,    King   of   Assyria,    36; 

Suppresses    Revolt   in   West,    36; 

Besieges  Tyre,  37. 
Ethbaal  (Ithobalus),  King  of  Tyre, 

Ethbaal  II,  King  of  Tyre,  44. 
Ethbaal  III,  King  of  Tyre,  46. 
Evagorus  of  Cyprus,  52. 
Ezekiel,  40,  44,  46,  138ff. 

Frederick,  Archbishop  of  Tyre,  99. 
Frederick    of    Germany,     King    of 

Jerusalem,  116. 
Fulcher,  Archbishop  of  Tyre,  99. 
Fulk  of  Anjou,  100. 

Gerastart,  Judge  of  Tyre,  46. 

Glass  of  Tyre,  94,  100,  143-144. 

Guy  of  Lusignan,  King  of  Jerusalem, 
107;  Besieges  Acre,  108. 

Halil,  Sultan  of  Egypt,  122;  Over- 
throws Kingdom  of  Jerusalem,  122; 
Annihilates  Tyre,  122. 

Hannibal  flees  to  Tjrre,  67. 

Henry  of  Campagne,  King  of  Jerusa- 
lem, 113. 

Heracles  identified  with  Melkart,  55. 

Herod  Agrippa,  71. 

Hezekiah,  King  of  Judah,  35. 

Hiram,  King  of  Tyre,  4,  16;  Enlarges 
City,  16;  Friend  of  David,  17; 
Friend  of  Solomon,  17;  Commercial 
Enterprises,  20;  His  Wit,  20,  21; 
Tomb  of,  22. 

Hiram  II,  King  of  Tyre,  33. 

Hiram  III,  King  of  Tyre,  47. 

Hugh,  King  of  Jerusalem,  120. 

Hugh  of  Tiberias,  106. 

Ibn  Jubair's  Description,  102. 
Ibn  Merwdn  rebuilds  Tyre,  83. 
Ibrahim  Pasha,  Governor  of  Syria, 

128,  129. 
Industries  of  Tyre,  Metallurgy,  142; 

Textile  Fabrics,  142;  Manufacture 

of  Glass,  143;  Making  of  Sugar, 
144;  Purple  Dyes,  144;  Summary 
of,  IX. 

Isaiah,  29. 

Islam,  Rapid  Conquests,  80;  Condi- 
tions imposed,  82. 

Isma'il,  Sultan  of  Damascus,  117. 

Ithobalus  (Ethbaal),  King  of  Tyre, 

Izz  al-Mulk,  Governor  of  Tyre,  88, 
90,  92. 

Jehoiakim,  King  of  Judah,  43. 

Jeremiah,  43. 

Jerome,  78. 

Jerusalem,  besieged  by  Nebuchad- 
rezzar, 44;  Taken  by  Crusaders,  88. 

Jews,  Slaughter  of  at  Tyre,  79-80. 

Jezebel,  Daughter  of  King  Ithobal 
of  Tyre,  25;  Introduces  Tyrian 
Religion  into  Israel,  25. 

John  de  Brienne,  King  of  Jerusalem, 

John  of  Ibelin,  116,  117. 

John  of  Montfort,  Governor  of  Tyre, 

Judas  Maccabeus,  69. 

Kalaun,  Sultan  of  Egypt,  121. 
Kharesmians,  117. 

Lade,  Battle  of,  51. 

Literary  Era  at  Tyre,  72. 

Louis  IX,  King  of  France,  118. 

Lysius  attempts  to  destroy  Jewish 
State,  68. 

Manuel,  Emperor  of  Constantinople, 

Marinus  of  Tyre,  72. 

Marion,  King  of  Tyre,  70. 

Mas^M,  92. 

Matgen,  King  of  Tyre,  24. 

Matgen,  Judge  of  Tyre,  46. 

Maundrell's  Description,  124-126. 

Maximinus,  Edict  against  Christian- 
ity, 75. 

Melkart,  identified  with  Heracles,  55; 
Temple  at  Tyre,  55;  Temple  at 
Palaetyrus,  55;  Vid.  Religion. 

Menehem,  King  of  Samaria,  33. 

Menelaus,  Jewish  High  Priest,  68. 

Methodius,  Bishop  of  Tyre,  75. 

Merbaal,  King  of  Tyre,  47. 

Miltiades,  51. 

Mongols  invade  Syria,  119. 

Mtl'awiyah,  83. 

Mutawalis  (Metawileh),  126. 

Murex,  144. 



Nabopolassar,  King  of  Babylon,  42. 

Nebuchadrezzar,  King  of  Babylon, 
42;  Defeats  Necho  at  Carchemish, 
42;  Accepts  Submission  of  Tyre,  43; 
Besieges  Tyre  13  yrs.,  44. 

Necho  II,  King  of  Egypt,  42;  De- 
feated by  Nebuchadrezzar,  42. 

Obeidah  captures  Aleppo,  80. 
Ochus,  King  of  the  Persians,  53. 
Odo,  Archbishop  of  Tyre,  99. 
Origin  of  Phoenicians,  Iff. 
Origen  persecuted  at  Tyre,  74;  En- 
tombed in  Temple  of  Tyre,  74. 

Paul,  St.,  at  Tyre,  71. 

Paulus  of  Tyre,  73. 

Paulinus,  Bishop  of  Tyre,  76;  Builds 
Temple  at  Tyre,  76. 

Peter,  Archbishop  of  Tyre,  99. 

Peter  the  Hermit,  87. 

Pharaoh-Hophra  (Apries),  King  of 
Egypt,  43;  Supports  Revolt  against 
Babylon,  43;  His  Wars,  44. 

Pheles,  King  of  Tyre,  24. 

Phihp,  King  of  France,  109. 

Philip  de  Montfort,  Lord  of  Tyre, 
118;  Escapes  assassination,  120- 

Philip  of  Toron,  117. 

Phoenicians,  Origin  of.  Iff.;  Lan- 
guage, 1. 

Pillars,  Symbolism  of,  7. 

Pompey  reduces  Syria,  70. 

Porphyry,  74. 

Ptolemy  gains  Tyre,  63. 

Purple,  Pliny's  Account  of  Manufac- 
ture, 144.     Vid.  Industries. 

Pygmalion,  King  of  Tyre,  24. 

Ramses  II,  King  of  Egypt,  13. 

Ramses  XII,  King  of  Egypt,  14. 

Raoul  de  Soissons,  117. 

Ras  al-Ain,  125,  131. 

Religion:  Melkart,  146,  147;  Sacri- 
fices, 146-147;  Temple  of  Melkart, 
147;  Temple  at  Palaetyrus,  148; 
Twin  Pillars,  148;  Festivals  of 
Melkart,  149;  Human  Sacrifices 
not  made,  150;  Ashteroth,  150- 
151;  Kinship  with  Deities,  152; 
Objects  of  Prayer,  150;  Private 
Worship,  152;  Bishops  of  Tyre, 

Rib- Adda,  King  of  Gebal  (Byblus), 
9,  12. 

Richard,  King  of  England,  109. 

Richard  Philanger,  Lord  of  Tyre,  116. 

Roy,  Servant  of  Baal,  13. 

Saladin,  Successes,  103;  Besieges 
Tyre,  104-106;  Death  of,  113. 

Salamis,  Battle  of,  51. 

Sanchoniathon's  Myth,  7. 

Sargon,  King  of  Assyria,  35. 

Satraps,  War  of,  53. 

Sazu  (afterwards  Palaetyrus),  11. 

Sennacherib,  King  of  Assyria,  36. 

Seti  I,  King  of  Egypt,  13. 

Shalmanezer  IV,  King  of  Assyria,  34. 

Shalmayati,  King  of  Tyre,  12,  16. 

ShorabiJ  subjects  Tyre  to  Islam,  80. 

Sidon,  Meaning  of  Name,  2;  De- 
stroyed by  Ochus,  53;  Rebuilt,  53; 
Welcomed  Alexander,  54. 

Slave  Trade,  40,  68,  113. 

Solomon,  Friendship  for  Hiram,  17; 
Builds  Temple  at  Jerusalem,  17ff.; 
Sea  Ventures,  20;  Wit  of,  21,  22. 

Starto,  King  of  Tyre,  49. 

Sychaeus  (Acerbas),  30. 

Synod  of  Tyre,  77. 

Syria  from  Sur  (Tyre),  IX. 

Tarshish,  20;  Ships  of  explained,  20, 

Tel  al-Ma'shuk,  131. 

Tel  el-Amarna  Letters,  8ff. 

Temple  at  Jerusalem  erected,  17-19; 
Destroyed,  19. 

Temple  of  Crusaders  at  Tyre,  130. 

Temple  of  Melkart,  4,  8,  16;  Vid. 

Temple  of  Paulinus  at  Tyre,  76. 

Tennes,  King  of  Sidon,  53. 

Theodorich's  Description  of  Tyre, 

Thotmes  III,  King  of  Egypt,  9. 

Tiglathpilezer  III,  King  of  Assyria, 

Tigranes,  King  of  Armenia,  69. 

Tirhakah,  King  of  Egypt,  38. 

Toron,  Castle  of,  114-115. 

Tuba'lu  (Ethbaal),  King  of  Sidon,  36. 

Tugtakin,  Sultan  of  Damascus,  89, 
96,  97. 

Tyrannion,  Bishop  of  Tyre,  76. 

Tyre,  Meaning  of  Name,  4;  Founding 
of,  6ff.;  Myth  of  Floating  Island,  7; 
Older  than  Palaetyrus,  3-4;  Topog- 
raphy, 3,  16,  85,  86;  Besieged 
under  Abi-Milki,  9;  Rise  to  Leader- 
ship, 14;  In  the  Age  of  Hiram,  16ff.; 
Yields  to  Asshurnazirpal,  28;  Trib- 
ute to  Shalmanezer  II,  29;  Revolts 
against  Tiglathpilezer  II,  32;  Con- 
quered, 33;  Besieged  by  Shal- 
manezer IV,  34;  Revolts  against 
Sennacherib,  35;  Besieged  by  Esar- 



haddon,  37;  Independent,  40;  Sub- 
mitted to  Nebuchadrezzar,  42; 
Joined  Revolt,  43;  Besieged  13  yrs. 
by  Nebuchadrezzar,  45;  Submitted, 
45;  Era  of  Depression,  46;  Ruled 
by  Judges,  46;  Monarchy  reestab- 
lished, 47;  Under  Persians,  48; 
Supported  Persians  against  Greeks, 
50;  Yielded  to  Evagorus  of  Cyprus, 
52;  Restored  to  Persians,  52;  Re- 
sisted Alexander,  55ff . ;  Alexander's 
Siege,  55flf . ;  Besieged  by  Antigonus, 
65;  Destroyed  by  Niger,  73;  Re- 
stored by  Severus,  73;  Yields  to 
Moslems,  80;  Reduced  by  Egypt, 
85;  Besieged  by  Crusaders,  90; 
Second  Crusaders'  Siege,  95;  Be- 
sieged by  Saladin,  105-106;  De- 
stroyed by  HaUl,  122;  Modern 
Tyre,  126-132. 

Vial,  General,  at  Tyre,  127. 

Volney's  Account,  127. 

Water  Supply  of  Tyre,  5;  Vid.  Ras 

Wenamon,  Early  Egyptian  Traveler, 

William  of  Jerusalem,  Archbishop  of 

Tyre,  98. 
William  of  Tyre,  Archbishop  of  Tyre, 

Willibald,  Travels  of,  84. 

Xerxes     employs     Tyrians     against 
Greece,  51. 

Yukenah  captures  Tyre  for  Islam,  80. 

Zedekiah,  King  of  Judah,  43. 
Zeno,  Bishop  of  Tyre,  77. 
Zephaniah,  39. 
Zimridi,  King  of  Sidon,  9. 


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